Parallel Testing With JUnit 5 And Selenium [Tutorial]

Posted by Shalini Baskaran | September 11, 2021
Automation • Selenium Java •

102381 Views | 14 Min Read

JUnit 5 parallel test execution

Parallel test execution with Selenium is one of the major factors that can affect the test execution speed. Serial execution in Selenium automation testing can be effective only if the tests have to be run on a small number of browser and OS combinations. Therefore, parallel execution should be leveraged at the early stages of QA testing to expedite test execution rapidly.

Though you can reap the benefits of parallel testing in Selenium using a local Selenium Grid, it might not be a feasible option if you want to perform testing on umpteen combinations of browsers, operating systems, and devices. This is where testing on a cloud-based Selenium Grid like LamdaTest can be super advantageous. It can further help in expediting parallel test execution by leveraging the benefits offered by the Selenium Grid.


Being a Java developer, I am extensively using the features offered by the JUnit 5 framework for different test scenarios, including parallel testing with Selenium. JUnit 5 differs greatly from its predecessor (i.e., JUnit 4), with the differentiation starting with its core architecture. In case you are getting started with JUnit 5, I would recommend having a close look at the JUnit 5 architecture so that you can closely follow how to run tests with the framework.

In this JUnit 5 tutorial, we deep dive into how to perform parallel test execution with the JUnit 5 framework. A number of features in JUnit 5 are in the experimental phase, including parallel test execution. But, like a good samaritan, you can also provide your valuable feedback to the JUnit team so that they can promote the feature and take it out of the experimental phase.

Introduction to JUnit 5 Framework

Before I deep dive into the essentials of the JUnit 5 parallel test execution, let me do a quick rundown of the basics of the JUnit 5 framework. In the JUnit 4 framework, all the functionalities are wrapped in a single package. On the other hand, JUnit 5 comprises three distinct sub-components – JUnit Platform, JUnit Jupiter, and JUnit Vintage.

There is a significant difference as far as JUnit 5 annotations, and JUnit 4 annotations are concerned. Though some annotations in JUnit 5 have changed from a naming standpoint, annotations like @Rule and @ClassRule are removed, whereas new annotations like @ExtendWith and @RegisterExtension are added in the JUnit 5 framework.

If you are coming from the JUnit 4 background, you can check out JUnit 4 vs JUnit 5 comparison to understand the differences between the two JUnit versions. Although there are umpteen reasons where JUnit 5 has a huge upper hand over JUnit 4, do check out why to use JUnit 5 that deep dives into the major advantages of the JUnit 5 framework.

Shown below is the architectural view of the JUnit 5 framework:

JUnit 5 Architecture

JUnit 5 Architecture

Overall, JUnit 5 is much more extensible due to its unique architecture, provides the flexibility to use multiple runners, and provides a set of useful annotations that enhance the tests.

JUnit 5 Parallel Test Execution

Now that we have covered the essentials of the JUnit 5 framework, we look at how to perform parallel test execution with JUnit 5 from a Selenium automation testing point of view. For running the tests, you would need a working setup of JUnit on your machine. Make sure to check out our blog on how to set up a JUnit environment where the steps mentioned in the blog remain unchanged for JUnit 5.

Let’s get to the million-dollar question ‘How to run JUnit 5 tests in parallel’? For starters, JUnit 5 parallel execution is still in the experimental feature and is expected to become mainstream in the upcoming version of JUnit 5. So, to enable parallel test execution in JUnit 5, set junit.jupiter.execution.parallel.enabled to true in file.

Read – How to execute JUnit 4 tests with JUnit 5

Even after setting the above property to true, test classes and test methods would still execute sequentially. SAME_THREAD and CONCURRENT are the two modes that let you control the sequence of test execution. As specified in the official JUnit 5 user documentation, SAME_THREAD (default execution mode) forces the execution in the same thread that the parent uses. On the other hand, CONCURRENT lets you execute concurrently unless a resource lock forces execution in the same thread.

Here are the configuration parameters for executing all the JUnit 5 tests in parallel:

Once the parallel execution property is set (or enabled), the JUnit Jupiter engine will run the tests in parallel as per the configurations provided with the synchronization mechanisms. In the further section of this JUnit 5 tutorial, we will deep dive into the practical implementation of JUnit 5 parallel test execution for Selenium automation testing.

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This JUnit certification establishes testing standards for those who wish to advance their careers in Selenium automation testing with JUnit.

Here’s a short glimpse of the JUnit certification from LambdaTest:

Demonstration: JUnit 5 Parallel Test Execution for Selenium Automation Testing

Let’s get our hands dirty for demonstrating parallel test execution with JUnit 5. First, we take a simple Java example that comprises two classes executed in parallel using the JUnit 5 framework.

Let us look at a simple example of running the JUnit 5 tests in parallel.

FileName –

FileName –

FileName – pom.xml

Now how do we run JUnit 5 test cases in parallel? The JUnit 5 framework provides two distinct mechanisms through which you can run tests in parallel:

Method 1: Add VM arguments under Run configuration

Step 1: Right-click on the folder which contains the tests that you intend to run in parallel. Click on Create Tests.

VM arguments

Step 2: In the Create Run configuration, add the below arguments in VM options:

junit 5 selenium tutorial

Step 3: Click OK and run the Tests.

From the execution output, it is evident that the JUnit 5 tests are running in parallel.

Execution Output

unnamed (15)

Method 2: JUnit 5 parallel test execution using Maven

In this particular method, parallel execution options are added in the pom.xml file. If you are new to Maven, you can have a quick look at the Maven tutorial for Selenium that helps you get started with Maven for Eclipse IDE.

For demonstration, we have used the earlier example where two tests in different Java files were executed in parallel. Follow the below mentioned steps to realize parallel execution in JUnit 5 using the said approach:

Step 1: Set junit.jupiter.execution.parallel.enabled to true and junit.jupiter.execution.parallel.mode.default to concurrent in pom.xml

Step 2: Run the Maven command mvn clean test to run the tests from the command line. In case you are intrigued to know about command-line execution with Maven for JUnit, make sure to check out our detailed blog that demonstrates running JUnit tests from the command line.

Shown below is the execution snapshot, which indicates that the test execution has been completed successfully:

Till now, we have demonstrated parallel execution using JUnit 5 without any involvement of Selenium in it. In the further section of this JUnit 5 tutorial, we look at leveraging parallel test execution with JUnit 5 for expediting Selenium tests.

If you are curious to learn more about the other essentials of the JUnit framework, head over to the detailed JUnit tutorial on LambdaTest learning hub.

How to perform JUnit 5 parallel test execution using Selenium

The true potential of parallel testing in Selenium can be exploited by shifting the tests from a local Selenium Grid to a cloud Selenium Grid like LambdaTest. You can check out our cloud testing tutorial to understand the major benefits offered by a cloud-based Grid.

LambdaTest provides an excellent platform to run Selenium tests across 2,000+ browsers and operating systems, all in the cloud! Furthermore, since the code changes are majorly involved on the infrastructure front, it is easy to port an existing implementation that works on a local Selenium Grid to a cloud-based Selenium Grid.

Once you have created an account on LambdaTest, make sure to note the username and access key that is available on the LambdaTest profile page. Then, you can generate the desired capabilities for browser and platform combinations using the LambdaTest capabilities generator.

Below is the code for running our Junit 5 tests on a cloud-based Selenium Grid like LambdaTest:

FileName –

As mentioned earlier, JUnit 5 parallel execution test execution can be achieved by adding the arguments in VM options in Run configuration or running through Maven by adding the plugin in the pom.xml file.

Code Walkthrough

Rather than doing a detailed code walkthrough, we would touch upon the important aspects of the source code.

To get started, we create a Remote WebDriver instance using the browser and platform capabilities added in the setup() method. Then, as seen below, a pair of username and access key is used to access the LambdaTest Grid.

The class comprises 6 test methods, with each test method using relevant locators in Selenium to locate the relevant WebElements. For example, in the test method login_Test(), the XPath Selenium locator is used to locate the page’s email and password elements. In case you need a quick recap of XPath, make sure to check out our detailed guide for using XPath locators in Selenium.

When running the test, there is a possibility that dynamically loaded content (or WebElement) might not be present on the page. Interacting with an Element that is not yet a part of the DOM could lead to exceptions. Since handling dynamic content is one of the major Selenium automation challenges, it needs to be addressed by adding appropriate delay(s) to make the relevant WebElement available for access in the DOM.

Expected conditions in Selenium WebDriver are used at appropriate places in the implementation for ensuring that the WebElements being interacted with are visible, interactable, etc. For example, in the test method blogPage_Test(), a wait is performed on the expected condition visibilityOfAllElements. Then, if the corresponding elements are visible, appropriate actions are performed on those elements.

JUnit asserts with Selenium are used in all the test methods to assert wherever failures are encountered during the process of Selenium automation testing. Some of the same asserts from a few test methods are mentioned below:


Shown below is the execution snapshot, which indicates that the tests are executing in parallel:

parallel testing

As seen below, we can see that the test execution has been completed successfully.

parallel testing with junit 5

To check the test execution status, navigate to the LambdaTest automation dashboard, where you can even check the video of the test execution.

LambdaTest automation dashboard

How to perform JUnit 5 parallel test execution using parameterization in Selenium

In the earlier section, we executed six different tests on a single browser and platform combination. However, the approach can falter if tests have to be performed on ‘N’ different test combinations.

This is where parameterized test with JUnit in Selenium can be super effective as the relevant test combinations can be passed as parameters to parameterized test methods. Like its predecessor, JUnit 5 also provides flexibility to leverage parameterization in Selenium to reduce LOC (Lines of Code) and achieve better test coverage with lesser code.

Add the following dependency in pom.xml so that you can parameterize tests using the JUnit 5 framework:

For demonstration, we would be performing tests on Chrome and Firefox browsers on the LambdaTest Selenium Grid. The browser and platform combinations are generated using the LambdaTest capabilities generator.

FileName –

Code Walkthrough

Since we are using parameterization in JUnit 5, the necessary package is imported at the beginning of the implementation.

The org.junit.jupiter.params.provider package is also imported since the stream of physical arguments would be used as input to the annotated @ParameterizedTest method.

The stream of Browser arguments is defined in the manner shown below. Each test method uses ‘browser’ as the input argument against which the test methods are run.

Each test method calls the browser_setup() method, where the relevant browser and platform capabilities are set depending on the corresponding test combination. For example, remote Chrome Driver is instantiated if the parameter (i.e., browser) is set to Chrome. The same principle also applies to the Firefox browser.

Since each test method is a parameterized one, it is defined under the @ParameterizedTest annotation. Similarly, the @MethodSource annotation is used to access the values returned from the factory methods of the class under which the annotation is declared.

As seen below, @MethodSource provides access to the value “browser” that is a stream of arguments (i.e. Stream< Arguments >). Hence, three test methods [i.e. launchAndVerifyTitle_Test(), login_Test(), and logo_Test()] would be run across two browser (i.e. Chrome and Firefox) combinations.

Hence, you should see six test scenarios executing in parallel on the LambdaTest Selenium Grid. Apart from these code modifications, the rest of the implementation logic remains the same, as mentioned earlier.

The tearDown() method defined under the @AfterEach annotation is executed after each test run so that the subsequent tests are run on a fresh browser and OS combination.

The method defined under @AfterAll annotation is run only after all the tests have completed execution.


Shown below is the execution snapshot, which indicates that parallel test execution using JUnit 5 was carried out on Chrome and Firefox browsers.

Chrome and Firefox browsers

Shown below is the snapshot of the LambdaTest automation dashboard, which indicates that three test methods were run against two different browser combinations (i.e., Chrome and Firefox). The build title being shown in the dashboard was set when setting the desired browser capabilities.

junit 5 and selenium

The IntelliJ execution console shows that the three tests were executed successfully against two different browser combinations.

selenium tutorial




In this JUnit 5 tutorial, we have seen how to perform parallel test execution with the JUnit 5 framework using different ways. To carry out our tests, we have also leveraged the LambdaTest cloud grid, which supports 2000+ browsers and various platforms. I hope you find this article helpful in understanding the parallel test execution using JUnit 5. I would love to hear your comments on this.

Keep exploring ..!

Frequently Asked Questions

Do JUnit 5 tests run in parallel?

JUnit tests are run sequentially in a single thread by default. However, parallel tests execution has been available since JUnit 5.3 and still is an experimental feature.

Is it possible to run JUnit 4 tests in JUnit 5?

Yes, you can run JUnit 4 tests in JUnit 5 by migrating the tests from JUnit 4 to JUnit 5.

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