Top 10 Java Unit Testing Frameworks for 2021
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When we talk about programming in the modern tech world, Java instantly comes to our mind. After all, it is considered as one of the most versatile programming languages. Looking back on its history, Java has always had an extraordinary position in a back-end developer’s heart. A majority of developers enjoy Java due to its platform independency, security, ease of use, variety of accessible resources, and several other essential features. These traits appreciably contributed to the popularity of Java as a programming language – as of 2018, there were seven million or more Java developers globally.
Undoubtedly, Java has positioned itself as one of the admired programming languages for web development projects. Looking back at the results of 2019, Java was positioned in the list of Top 5 Most Popular Technology which, in turn, encouraged the usage of Java testing frameworks.
Let’s look at some statistics:
- According to the TIOBE Popularity index, in 2020 Java was the second most famous programming language across the world. It was also the ‘language of the year’ for 2005, 2015 and got the top position in popularity (since 2001.)
- In 2019, Java was the most popular programming language globally. It comes with a great system with nine million or more Java developers.
Best Java Testing Frameworks To Use In 2020
Java unit testing frameworks provide programmers with a standardized, sophisticated, and extensible means to build a web application or any other software. It comprises a massive collection of packages that supply pre-written code. Depending on your choice of testing frameworks for Java, they incorporate libraries, compilers, tools, and APIs.
Moreover, extensive Java unit testing frameworks always deliver a secured application. So in case of a security gap, one can resolve it within the framework’s website/support with zero trouble. They even offer built-in functions and modules to enable efficiency and speed for the developers and testers.
What to expect from Java testing frameworks this decade?
Well, here are the best Java testing frameworks that are likely to make a great difference in 2020.
JBehave is an incredible and one of the best Java testing frameworks that supports BDD (Behaviour-Driven Development). BDD is an evolution of TDD (Test-Driven Development) and ATDD (Acceptance Test-Driven Development).
Behaviour-Driven Development is intended to make these practices insightful and more accessible for both beginners and specialists. It shifts the terms to behaviour-based from being test-based, and sets itself as a design paradigm, highlighting communication, and automation alike.
Core distributions of Jbehave are:
- JBehave Web
- JBehave Core
Prerequisites For Installing JBehave
One of the proper ways to make use of this testing framework for Java is to incorporate it with Eclipse. Indeed, for this, despite JDK1.7 & above as well as any Eclipse IDE (integrated development environment) above indigo, one would require various jar files such as:
JBehave BDD testing framework is also beneficial in multiple ways.
- Products have superior specifications because of the fact that this testing framework for Java features reasoning, and intuitiveness in a detailed way.
- Serves a great purpose for BDD by offering integration among distinct development teams engaged with varied projects yet similar specifics.
- JBehave framework uses a semi-formal language which is a great help for developers. Having a domain vocabulary feature aids in managing consistency in the team structure.
- Even, stakeholders, as well as project managers, get better transparency regarding the QA teams & dev team productivity as the specs have the same format.
There is only one loophole or con of JBehave just like any other BDD testing framework.
- BDD testing framework or tool success rate mostly comes down to significant communication carried out among members working in a project. It can be between the management team, the testers, the developers, and the stakeholders.
Improper communication may lead to unanswered doubts and queries. In the end this can lead to a flaw-filled app or an app not meeting up to client requirements, resulting in a blame game between all the involved parties.
Is JBehave One Of The Best Java Testing Frameworks For You?
JBehave- the testing framework for Java works similar to frameworks like Serenity. But, if you plan to create the automated acceptance tests effectively, it is better to incorporate JBehave along with Serenity for utilizing an ideal test experience. The entire concept of Serenity is based on BDD development and it also lets the users write a rich and powerful testing report.
JUnit is an open-source regression testing framework that is used mainly by expert software developers to execute unit testing, speed up programming, and improve the quality of code in Java. The key purpose of introducing this framework is to allow Java developers to script and implement repeated test cases. This is amongst the most commonly used Java unit test frameworks.
JUnit framework is majorly used by experts to test small bunches of code. You can also carry out automated tests of a site by combining Selenium WebDriver with JUnit for Java automated testing. When any fresh code is added, you will be asked to reboot the complete test cases and ensure about zero breakage.
- Test suites
- JUnit classes
- Test runners
Prerequisites For Installing JUnit
Based originally on SUnit & written in Smalltalk, this Java unit testing framework is extremely attuned with Selenium WebDriver. The key reason being, it is derived from Java. Some prerequisites, you will need to follow these-
- Should have the JDK newest version installed in your system.
- (Optional) Unzip the $JUNIT_HOME/src. jar file.
- Have great know-how and expertise of app growth in an object-oriented language, particularly Java programming.
- Download the new JUnit version & set up the environment.
There are various benefits of using JUnit among the available Java testing frameworks.
- It can be used for both integration and unit tests as it supports Java 8 features. Bugs can be easily detected in the early phase, ensuing in an unfailing and reliable code.
- Developers or programmers, who work in a test-driven environment, find it extremely useful. They find it easier to read the code and scrutinize any glitches present.
- The development of an anomaly free code as well as a more readable code acts as a confidence augmenter.
- Almost all major IDEs, like Eclipse, NetBeans, Maven, Ant, and IntelliJIDEA, provide JUnit framework integrations. So, you can easily write and start unit testing straight from those IDEs.
- By using the upgraded JUnit version (version 5), one can identify exemption very easily. Plus, they can implement test cases written in the older JUnit version.
- One can also use this unit test framework for Java with Java 5 or other versions.
- JUnit framework is not capable of implementing dependency tests. Thus, in this state, we necessitate TestNG.
Is JUnit One Of The Best Java Testing Frameworks For You?
JUnit is a commonly used open-source framework based on Java. Both TestNG as well as JUnit do a similar job and their key traits are somehow the same, excluding the dependency test capabilities. The execution procedure of parameterized testing is also distinct in both frameworks.
Due to the fact that JUnit has been used for an extended period, there is great support from the community. It has been also defined as the standard Java Unit Testing Frameworks by integrating Selenium WebDriver for Java-based applications. Although TestNG has few users and the community is ever-growing. Thus, we are wrapping up with the suggestion that the choice between JUnit or TestNG for a Java test framework entirely depends upon the nature and necessities of specific applications.
Formerly recognized as Thucydides, Serenity is one of the most extensively-used open-source Java testing frameworks. Serenity BDD framework assists you to write acceptance criteria, which are cleaner, structured, and manageable. It enhances the functionality of both Selenium WebDriver and JUnit.
With this specialized framework, you can create descriptive testing reports. Besides, you can map automated testing back to your needs. In general, this automation framework for Java makes Java development services more reliable and effective.
- Open Source project
- Complete reports on test results & implementation
- Business-readable formatted report for every test
Prerequisites For Installing Serenity
As the automated framework is entirely Java-based, you will certainly need know-how in Java or any other object-oriented programming language. Besides this, your system will necessitate-
- JDK 5 or higher version above.
- Maven 3.0 or any updated high version.
- An IDE tool – Eclipse as well as Maven is generally preferred by all programmers or developers as they are painless to work with.
Let’s glance over the benefits of using Serenity.
- This automation framework for Java helps the tester to craft test cases for REST services.
- It maintains a balance, rather a margin between the description and understanding of a test case and its implementation approach.
- Users don’t need to pay out extra time to maintain or build their own automated framework.
- Serenity can be integrated with plenty of frameworks such as advanced development frameworks for Java like Spring, other frameworks like Selenium, JBehave, and with project management tools like JIRA.
The con of Serenity is similar to the JBehave framework for Java. Regular communication between the project participants is necessary in order to make the best of the support provided for BDD.
Is Serenity One Of The Best Java Testing Frameworks For You?
This Java testing framework is mainly utilized for writing and reporting acceptance criteria. The reports written using Serenity are very effective, useful, advantageous, rich, and very informative than other BDD frameworks like JBehave. It assists programmers to write superior quality automation test case scenarios. Serenity also supports Selenium WebDriver and Rest Assured, making it faster and easier for the QA engineers to write automated acceptance test criteria.
TestNG is amongst the most popular and powerful Java testing frameworks used for Integration, Functional, and Unit testing. It was created by Cedric Beust in 2004 and has now been updated to version 7. It is a tough competitor of frameworks like the JUnit framework. TestNG is similar to JUnit, yet it is configured with extraordinary annotations and superior functionalities (not supported by Junit).
The NG in TestNG denotes the ‘next generation.’ TestNG can cover almost every type of software testing, counting end-to-end, unit, integration, and functional testing. Both TestNG and JUnit are Java-based frameworks that allow you to write tests and scrutinize end results. If testing gets succeeded, you will see a green bar, otherwise, a red bar.
- Supports dependent methods testing
- Test configuration flexible
- Supports sturdy execution model
- Set in BeanShell for additional flexibility
Prerequisites For Installing TestNG
The Java-based framework helps developers with core features like grouping, sequencing, and parameterizing. This makes the newest test cases adaptable and eradicates the loopholes of frameworks used previously. For installing TestNG, you will need:
- JDK latest version installed in your system.
- Latest version of Eclipse.
- Understanding and practical experience of Java programming language or some other object-oriented programming language.
If you’d like to install TestNG in Eclipse, here’s a Step by Step guide.
Despite overcoming the anomaly of the oldest frameworks, there are quite a few benefits of TestNG.
- Allows creating, and running parallel testing on multiple code snippets.
- While implementing the test case, you can create an HTML report.
- Test cases can be easily organized and grouped in accordance with priorities. Performing the tests is far easier, simply by putting the framework to run front-end testing or database testing.
- Priorities can be easily set by data parameterizing and by utilizing annotations.
- TestNG might not be the right fit for you if your project doesn’t need prioritization in the test case. Besides, setting up TestNG requires more time.
Is TestNG One Of The Best Java Testing Frameworks For You?
As we already know, JUnit test framework performs all the same functions as TestNG but it has some drawbacks. JUnit is amazing when the test is performed in isolation; however, when there is some kind of dependency, you won’t get any control over which testing is done earlier. TestNG frameworks for Java aid you by letting you execute test cases the way you want to.
Furthermore, you get added support for Parameterization In TestNG. Even though this particular trait is already found in JUnit 4.5, the TestNG framework is more helpful. If any project is complex and you may necessitate 100 or more test cases, it is better to get some extra time and set up a TestNG framework rather than depending completely on other frameworks like JUnit.
Selenide is a popular and open-source Java testing framework which is powered by Selenium WebDriver. It is a great tool for writing precise, communicative, and stable UI test cases for a Java app. It expands the WebDriver and JUnit functionalities.
WebDriver is one of the well-admired tools for User Interface testing, yet it is devoid of the trait to deal with a timeout. For instance, testing of web technologies such as Ajax. Selenide framework manages all these issues in an easy manner. Besides, it is simpler to install and learn. You simply need to concentrate on the logic and Selenide will do the rest.
- Out of the box and all set to use the framework.
- Write less automation code.
- Saves a ton of time.
- Configuration ideal for CI Tool such as Jenkins.
Prerequisites For Installing Selenide
As this open-source framework is Java-based, you will need experience in Java or other object-oriented programming languages. In your workstation, you will also need-
- JDK 5 or updated version
- Maven 3.0 or other versions installed
- An Integrated Development Environment (IDE) tool – Most commonly, Eclipse is preferred by all developers as the combo of Eclipse & Maven is simpler to work with.
Selenide continues to make a great impact by offering various benefits for test automation teams:
- First and foremost of all, it makes your tests precise and stable by solving (nearly) all Ajax/timing problems.
- Brief writing process of test cases that decreases the timeout issues.
- Supports app tests developed using AngularJS.
- Shortens so many commands which were formerly used by other traditional tools of Selenium.
Till now, nobody has found any notable drawback of using Selenide.
Is Selenide One Of The Best Java Testing Frameworks For You?
Selenium creators Thoughtworks launched another Java testing framework for carrying automated tests of web apps. Gauge is an open-source and free test automation framework for Java that takes the stress out of acceptance testing with less code involvement. It is one of the frequently used Java testing frameworks in the mobile website testing category of a tech stack.
- Simple to use, flexible syntax
- Uses a business-like language
- Supports maximum languages and platforms
- Uncountable plugins
Prerequisites For Installing Gauge
- Download and install Maven.
- Operating system versions- Microsoft Windows 10 or higher.
- Memory should be 512 MB of RAM (minimum.)
- Gauge plugin must be configured with your Integrated Development Environment (IDE) or Gauge framework should be installed if in case you are running the test from CMD/Terminal.
Gauge continues to make a significant impact by offering numerous rewards for agile teams throughout the DevOps procedure, including immediate feedback and ease of use. Let’s take a look at other advantages:
- Gives a business layer on top of the scripts to make them readable & understandable.
- Lets you create tests in the Integrated Development Environment (IDE) of your choice (IntelliJ, Vi VS Code, Visual Studio, Maven, Gradle, Eclipse,etc.)
- Run parallel testing and create tailored reports intelligently.
- Effortlessly test with big sets of data, while keeping specifics highly precise and readable.
- Gauge is completely new, and therefore, users don’t prefer this framework. While the open-source community continues to improve upon it on a daily basis.
- Gauge doesn’t support the safe parallel implementation of specs inside IntelliJ, because of the fact that the driver is static and has to be shared amid the scripts.
Is Gauge One Of The Best Java Testing Frameworks For You?
Gauge Java testing framework works great specifically for carrying out cross browser testing. This framework has incredibly revolutionized test automation procedures, allowing even non-technical users to write a test automation framework with ease. It solves real anomalies with test maintenance – thanks to its growing community and contribution of early adopters.
Based on Groovy, Geb is a testing framework for browsers built as a cherry on the Selenium WebDriver shaped cake. This makes it perfect for automated testing and you can easily perform cross browser testing on all browsers that are supported by WebDriver. Geb test automation framework for Java provides extraordinary traits for screen scraping, web testing, and many more.
What makes it exceptional is the manner it queries the HTML pages, by giving the jQuery-like syntax. Geb framework also offers built-in support for the Page Object Model. Geb can be used for general scraping, scripting, as well as automation. It is equally well suited as an acceptance, web or functional testing solution through integration with test frameworks like TestNG, JUnit, and Spock.
- Elegance of jQuery choice
- Licence under the Apache License, Version 2.0.
- Power of WebDriver
- Page Object Modelling robustness
- Articulacy of Groovy
Prerequisites For Installing Geb
- You have to download and install Maven
- Ensure you have Java installed in the system. It is better to install Java 8 or high versions for steady implementation.
- LambdaTest authentication and validation credentials. You can sign up right here.
- Replication of LambdaTest GitHub repository for Geb test automation framework.
Let’s look at the advantages of Geb testing framework for Java:
- Page Objects form and Groovy DSL of Geb make tests easily readable as they more or less look like plain English.
- Runs the tests with high-speed and saves your cost of testing. Compatible with various browsers like Internet Explorer, HTMLUnit, Firefox, and Chrome.
- Runs the tests in real-time and in real environment- the one that the user would observe. It supports maximum test coverage within the single script.
- It keeps regression testing trouble-free. You can run Geb test cases to check if any active functionality is breaking following a modification or mend in the application.
- Limitation of the Geb is that it executes WebDriver in the Groovy language. Hence, when using Webdriver, only this specific language will be supported. However, if you try to use WebDriver directly, it supports several other languages like Java, Ruby, C#, and Python.
- Geb won’t work great for small projects; it works well for huge tasks. If your web app doesn’t comprise various pages and forms through which the data requires to flow, you might find this framework truly expensive.
Is Geb One Of The Best Java Testing Frameworks For You?
Geb Java testing framework provides smart integration modules for frameworks like Cucumber, TestNG, JUnit, and Spock. However, Spock is a great match with Geb. Using Geb with Spock can give concise, clear, and understandable test specifications with less effort.
Spock is a popular test automation framework for Java. It is written in Groovy and allows testing experts to perform Data-Driven Tests on Java Virtual Machine. Spock provides incredible compatibility to many languages that are supported by JVM. The Spock UI is truly helpful and amazing in comparison to various other Java automation test frameworks.
One of the best features of Spock is that the code documentation and code readability is orderly and neat, plus it can interpret common English sentences. It is frequently used by software developers to build enterprise apps in Java. Thus, making it the most popular and convenient testing frameworks for Java in 2020.
- Originally created in 2008 by Peter Niederwieser
- Superset of the de facto test framework for Java: JUnit
- Spock has its own Mocking
- Tests can be written for any language
Prerequisites for Installing Spock
- The latest version of JDK
- The updated version of Eclipse
- Knowledge of Java programming language
Spock is the most popular test automation framework that provides the following crucial advantages:
- Amazing readability, providing compatibility towards plain English sentences compared to other Java automation test frameworks.
- Stubbing and Mocking are very easy and painless than ever with Spock. Besides, both Stubbing and Mocking are in-built.
- Crispier and shorter parameterization.
- Provides surrounding context, hence making it simpler to notice the failure cause.
- Simplistic and communicative Domain-Specific Language (DSL).
- It is written in Groovy so you should have a fundamental knowledge of Groovy.
- You may find Spock framework to be a bit inconvenient but once you are familiar with it then you won’t start thinking about moving to other Java test frameworks.
Is Spock One Of The Best Java Testing Frameworks For You?
Yes, many consider it to be the best Java testing framework and place it in the top position. Spock is the best test framework for Behaviour-Driven Development because of its powerful DSL, simplistic usage, and intuitive user interface. Particularly if you have some of the applications based on JVM. Spock is inspired by RSpec, jMock, JUnit, Mockito, Vulcans, Groovy, Scala, and other captivating life forms.
HttpUnit is a much-used and open-source software testing framework for performing website testing without any web browser requirement. HttpUnit is extremely suited for the execution of automatic test scripts for web apps. As the name HttpUnit suggests, it can be smartly used for unit tests.
However, general web layer elements such as servlets, JSP (JavaServer Pages) pages, as well as various other template elements don’t lend themselves to unit tests. Written in Java programming language, it permits test code to process returned pages as XML DOM, text, or containers of tables, links, and forms.
- Support for cookies
- Support for the HTTPS and HTTP protocols
- Support for HTML responses
- Proxy server support
Prerequisites For Installing HttpUnit
- System needs to support Java JDK 1.4 or the latest.
- Add Tidy.jar and httpunit.ja both integrated with HttpUnit, to your classpath. Also, make sure that an XML parser is previously installed.
- If running an older Java version, you must incorporate a JAXP-compliant XML parser in your classpath.
- Most recent release of HttpUnit is obtainable from this page.
HttpUnit testing framework is beneficial in myriad ways:
- The use of this testing framework for Java allows test automation of web apps and as a result, also aids in regression testing.
- One advantage of HTTPUnit is that it is much faster than other test automation frameworks like Selenium.
- It’s a good place to start for easy tests, though it will require more and more coding to create complex tests.
- A framework like Selenium is more specific and will allow anyone to use browser-centric behavior and not restrict the apps under test. However, with this specific framework, you will get limited support except for some major browsers.
Is HttpUnit One Of The Best Java Testing Frameworks For You?
HttpUnit is extremely easy to use and requires simple steps to get up and running. It’s great to utilize it to start simple tests, but it will require a high level of coding for creating complex tests. As compared to HTTPUnit, the framework for test automation like Selenium is more than just a library; it equips any person better for extra advanced automated testing.
As for several Model-View Controller framework-based elements, these are suitable to test with other types of frameworks. For instance, WebWork 2 actions can be unit tested lacking a Web container and Struts actions can be unit tested with StrutsUnit.
JWebUnit is a Java-based test framework and is one of the JUnit extensions preferred for Integration, Regression, and Functional testing. It wraps current active frameworks like HTMLUnit and Selenium with a simple test interface. Thus you can instantly test the accuracy of your web apps.
JWebUnit can be used to execute screen navigation tests. The framework also offers an advanced-level Java application programming interface to navigate a web app with a set of assertions to scrutinize the application’s accuracy. This counts navigation through links, form entrance and submission, justification of table contents, and other usual business web app traits.
- Top-level Java API to navigate a web application
- Open source java based framework
Prerequisites for Installing JWebUnit
- You need to install Maven.
- The current stable version of JWebUnit is 3.3. It requires Java 1.7.
- To manage dependencies in Eclipse when using Maven 2 make use of the m2e plugin.
JWebUnit testing framework for Integration, Regression, and Functional testing is also beneficial in myriad ways.
- Used to carry out screen navigation testing.
- Provides a superior-level API in order to navigate the web applications.
- The simple navigation with readily available assertions allows quicker test creation than using JUnit or HtmlUnit.
- If anyone wishes to switch from HtmlUnit to other kinds of plugins like Selenium, there is no requirement to rewrite the tests.
- Both TestNG as well as JWebUnit, does a similar job and features are quite similar, excluding the dependency tests capabilities.
Is JWebUnit One Of The Best Java Testing Frameworks For You?
JWebUnit works fine but sometimes adding a little BDD-flavouring to the mix can turn things for better. Behaviour-driven design or Behaviour-driven development is an incredible way to model user interaction with your app using JWebUnit.
It is almost a necessity for developers to be experts in software testing skills and have an excellent understanding of testing. This is what separates expert Java developers from novice developers. To get closer to perfection, the 10 best Java testing frameworks mentioned above are highly recommended for developers across the world. They will make it supremely easy for you to test an application.
Apart from choosing the best Java testing frameworks, you must also choose the right Selenium test automation platform to suit your project requirement. There are countless frameworks for Java and LambdaTest supports almost all of them. Also, you get to test your website on 2000+ browsers, operating systems, and devices. Use this article as a guide to assess your requirements and pick the framework cleverly to grab the benefits of features provided by Java.
Written by Praveen Mishra
Praveen is a Computer Science Engineer by degree, and a Digital Marketer by heart who works at LambdaTest. A social media maven, who is eager to learn & share about everything new & trendy in the tech domain.
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