Accessibility Testing Tutorial: A Detailed Guide

Delve into Accessibility Testing with our expert guide to uncover key methods and tools for accessible web and mobile application development

OVERVIEW

Accessibility Testing determines how well your web or mobile app can be used, understood, and navigated regardless of the device or platform used to access it. Not only can accessibility testing enhance your app, but it can bring many benefits, such as improved user experience, increased market reach, improved SEO, and enhanced brand reputation.

Accessibility is the next frontier for websites and mobile apps. According to WHO, 1.3 billion people are experiencing some kind of disabilities like visual impairments, hearing disabilities, or mobility impairments. This represents 16% of the total world population. Thus, creating a digital environment where these special people can also interact, contribute, and benefit from the technology offered is a must.

What is Accessibility Testing?

Accessibility testing is a software testing method to ensure web and mobile applications are usable by everyone, including individuals with disabilities like vision or hearing impairments, and various physical or cognitive conditions. This testing focuses on conforming to standards and providing an inclusive user experience for all.

During accessibility testing, the tester pretends to be impaired to test the whole software or individual components. The impairments commonly covered under accessibility testing include blindness, deafness, or non-functional organs.

Accessibility testing focuses on ensuring usability as well as accessibility. Hence, it is considered a subcategory of usability testing where users are individuals with disabilities and must be included in the software testing life cycle (STLC).

Watch the video below to stay ahead in implementing digital accessibility testing and delivering an inclusive web environment.

Why Accessibility Testing?

The web and mobile apps are developed to make the lives of humans easier. However, according to WHO, an estimated 1.3 billion people experience some kind of impairment. Thus, they need the support of our fast-growing technology and need to adapt to it. Accessibility testing ensures that web and mobile apps are accessible to these special people. Here are some reasons that make accessibility testing a must:

  • Cater to the market for Disabled People.

    According to the report on the global economics report of disability, the estimated population of persons with impairment is an estimated market larger than China. Together, the market for disabled people controls over $13 trillion. By adding accessibility testing in their software testing life cycle and ensuring the apps are accessible to these special people, organizations can benefit from this large market.

  • Abide by Accessibility Legislation

    Government agencies all across the globe have come out with laws and legalizations that mandate that IT products be accessible to persons with disabilities. The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) has created the following accessibility testing guidelines:

    • Perceivable: All the information and UI must be presented to be understandable to all the end users—for example, alternate text, image, or audio.
    • Operable: Navigation must be accessible and operable through the user interface- for example, keyboard navigation, gesture navigation, or voice navigation.
    • Understandable: The user interface's content should be readable and understandable using a meaningful statement rather than only color-coded guidelines.
    • Robust: The user interface's content must be robust for all users. It includes the responsiveness of the apps to adapt to different viewports.
  • Social Responsibility

    As per Pew Research Centre’s report on Americans with disabilities, over 88% of persons with any kind of disabilities now have access to the internet and digital devices like smartphones or tablets. They use rapidly growing technology to understand and adapt to their surroundings quickly. Thus, to help them better, organizations must keep their web and mobile apps easily accessible to them.

  • Business Benefit

    Accessibility testing can help organizations identify and remove barriers to access for people with disabilities, increasing their customer base and improving their reputation.

  • User-Centered Design

    Testing accessibility can also help organizations to design products, services, and environments usable by a wide range of people, including those with disabilities. It can lead to a better user experience for all users.

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Advantages of Accessibility Testing

More than legal compliances, accessibility testing brings a lot of advantages for the web and mobile apps. It can also improve user experience, increase market reach, improve SEO, enhance brand reputation, and follow user-centered design principles. Let’s cover the benefits that accessibility testing brings in detail.

  • Increases the user reach

    WHO report says, almost 1 in every 6 of us have some kind of physical impairment. Thus, by incorporating accessibility testing in the software testing life cycle (STLC) and ensuring that the app is accessible to almost all users, the organization can increase its target market reach.

  • Legal compliance

    According to Seyfarth, there are over 11,452 lawsuits filed in U.S. federal courts in 2021 under the Americans with Disabilities Act. Thus, organizations need to comply with lawful constraints and equip all users with a high extent of accessibility. By implementing accessibility testing, organizations can avoid legal tangles and penalties testing for their web or mobile apps.

  • Improved SEO

    Accessibility-friendly websites include rich text content, thus allowing search engine crawlers to find them easily while looking up relevant content. An improved SEO ranking means more organic website traffic, increasing popularity and revenues.

  • Cleaner UI and navigation

    Accessibility testing also helps create websites and applications with simpler navigation and user interfaces. This reduces bounce rates and encourages more users to use them frequently.

  • Improved brand reputation

    Organizations that ensure the product's accessibility to a person with disabilities gain a good reputation in the market, demonstrating their commitment to inclusion and diversity.

  • Cost saving

    Identifying and addressing accessibility issues early in the design and development process is less costly than making changes later.

It is essential to acknowledge the disadvantages to find a balanced approach to accessibility testing. Listed below are some potential disadvantages of accessibility testing:

  • Increased complexity of development and testing time

    Creating an accessibility-friendly website or application requires features that may extend the overall development time and complexity. The team needs to implement and test these additional features according to the laws to ensure the website/application’s accessibility for different disabilities. It increases the complexity of the development and testing time.

  • Limitations of accessibility testing tools

    Accessibility testing tools can only evaluate and detect objective and technical aspects of accessibility, such as content structure, code quality, or syntax. They cannot validate contextual and subjective aspects of accessibility, such as content relevance, clarity, or appropriateness.

Examples of Accessibility Testing

To understand the concept of accessibility testing better, let’s see examples of some apps developed by renowned organizations that use accessibility testing and ensure that their app makes life easier for persons with impairment.

Example 1 - Google Assistant (Developed by Google LLC)

Google Assistant is a commonly used app worldwide. This app integrated accessibility testing and ensured it was accessible to almost everyone, irrespective of disabilities. It provides a personal user experience to all its users. It has the following features that make it accessible to people with disabilities:

  • It is integrated with text-to-speech and speech-to-text features, making the app accessible to persons with vision or physical impairment.
  • Google Assistant can run the smartphone's core functionalities via voice commands–for example, making a call, navigating to a place, opening any app, or setting reminders.
  • It can answer various queries by fetching and summarizing data from the internet.

Example 2 - Envision AI (For Blindness and Visual Aid)

Envision AI leverages the power of artificial intelligence and can be used by people with visual or hearing impairments. It scans an object using the device’s camera and will use AI to inform the user about the visual situation of that object and its surroundings. Some additional functionalities offered by Envision AI for especially chapped people are

  • This app also features a method to analyze any form of text through a camera, and text can be displayed or dictated.
  • It supports over 60 languages and helps read all the content it recognizes in the user’s local language.

Sample Test Cases for Accessibility Testing

Now that we have established the importance of accessibility testing for mobile apps, it is important to note some specific accessibility testing test cases to illustrate how far-reaching it is when implemented. An accessible app should work with screen readers, speech recognition software, and magnification. Here are some standard test cases for usability testing:

  • Alternative texts

    Verifies that all images and decorators on the website must have appropriate alternative text for screen reader users.

  • Keyboard navigation

    Evaluate keyboard navigation accessibility by navigating through the website or application using only the keyboard shortcuts.

  • Color contrast

    Verify that the color contrast between the background, images, and text is sufficient for visually impaired users, such as those with color blindness or low vision.

  • Form labels

    Check that all input form elements have appropriate labels to assist screen reader users instead of only having color codes. If an input is invalid, the form must show a label of “incorrect value” instead of only changing its color to red.

  • Multimedia captions

    Verify that all multimedia content on the website, including video and audio, has transcripts or captions for users with hearing disabilities.

  • Legal compliance

    Verify that the website or application developed meets general and country-specific accessibility standards and guidelines, such as WCAG 2.1 and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).

  • Website’s content resizability

    Ensure that the website developed can support magnification tools or internally have a zoom-in or zoom-out functionality to maintain readability and usability at different zoom levels.

Types of Accessibility Testing

Each type of testing has its advantages, and using a combination of these techniques is often the best way to ensure a comprehensive evaluation of the product, service, or environment's accessibility. You can carry out accessibility tests that can be approached through functional testing, usability testing, compatibility testing, and performance testing.

  • Functional Testing

    This type of testing involves evaluating the functionality of a software deliverable to ensure widespread use by all. It includes testing the product, service, or environment with assistive technologies, such as screen readers, keyboard-only navigation, and through actual people with disabilities.

  • Usability Testing

    This type of testing involves evaluating a product, service, or environment to ensure everyone can easily understand and use it. This can include recruiting people with disabilities to test the product and providing feedback on their experience.

  • Compatibility Testing

    This type of testing involves evaluating the compatibility of a product, service, or environment with different devices, browsers, and assistive technologies. This can include testing the product on other operating systems, browsers, mobile devices, and a wide array of assistive technologies.

  • Performance Testing

    This type of testing involves evaluating how a product performs to ensure versatile usage. It can include testing the load time of a website or application and the responsiveness of buttons and controls.

Approaches to Accessibility Testing

You can approach testing accessibility using different techniques like automated testing, manual testing, and user testing. Each approach has its advantages. It's worth noting that a combination of these approaches is usually the best way to ensure that accessibility issues are identified and addressed.

  • Automated Accessibility Testing
  • This approach to accessibility testing involves using software testing tools to scan a website or application for accessibility issues, such as missing alternative text for images or inaccessible form controls. Automated accessibility testing tools can provide a quick assessment of the accessibility level of a website or application.

    Automated accessibility testing allows testers to monitor real time testing metrics and conduct broad inspections of the whole website without needing to navigate every page separately. This technique suits organizations with complex software with hundreds or thousands of templated product pages.

    Some scenarios which can best be tested with the automated accessibility testing approach are:

    • Determine font and background color contrast and legibility.
    • Identify problems with page layout and navigation.
    • Validate hyperlinks, both external and internal.
    • Checking font size flexibility to ensure ideal reading.
    • Identifying missing labels for inputs and alternative text for images.
    • Verifying PDF files’ bookmarks, reading order, images, and table components.
  • Manual Accessibility Testing
  • This involves manually testing the product, service, or environment using different assistive technologies, such as screen readers and keyboard-only navigation, and testing by human testers.

    Manual accessibility testing becomes essential because the automated accessibility testing approach is always effective in detecting issues. For example, an automated accessibility testing tool can identify if alt text is present or not, but it can’t tell you if that alt text has a relevant meaning for accessibility.

    Some scenarios which can be best tested with the manual accessibility testing approach are as follows:

    • Conducting user interaction testing to assess keyboard navigation and screen reader compatibility.
    • Evaluating multimedia elements for accurate captions and descriptive text.
    • Ensuring adequate and meaningful header and content structures for screen reader users.
    • Validating form fields for proper labeling, and error messaging.
    • Reviewing color usage and ensuring information is not conveyed solely through color.
    • Checking complex ARIA (Accessible Rich Internet Applications) implementations for correct usage.
    • Performing usability testing with individuals with disabilities to gather qualitative feedback.
  • User testing
  • The manual testing approach is a big effort as organizations need to hire a lot of testers who will just perform periodic assessments. Also, in manual testing, though human testers pretend to have disabilities, sometimes they miss some important checks. Hence, organizations sometimes prefer user testing, where the product is tested by real users instead of manual testers.

    It involves recruiting people with impairments to test the product, service, or environment and providing feedback on their experience. User testing offers valuable insights into how PWD interacts with the product, service, or environment and can identify issues that may be uncovered through automated or manual testing.

How to Create an Accessibility Testing Test Plan?

A test plan outlines the steps to test the accessibility of a product, service, or its environment and helps to ensure that all critical aspects of accessibility get taken care of.

The test plan should cover the scope of testing, the target audience, the testing methodologies, the resources needed, the testing schedule, the acceptance criteria, the reporting and follow-up process, and the review and approval process.

Here are the steps to creating an accessibility test plan for the best user experience.

  • Define the accessibility goals

    Defining the accessibility test goals is the first step to creating a test plan. This is done by specifying the outcomes by making the product accessible. For instance, organizations may aim to increase the user base, improve brand reputation, enhance the social impact, or comply with legal standards. Defined accessibility goals must align with the business objectives and user needs.

  • Identify the accessibility requirements

    Next testers need to identify the accessibility requirements, including specific standards and guidelines. For example, developers and testers must follow the WCAG (Web Content Accessibility Guidelines), or any other applicable regulations. The accessibility requirements should be finalized based on the target audience, technical environment, and legal obligations.

  • Choose the accessibility methods

    Once the testing goal and requirements are clear, testers can select the accessibility testing methods, including the testing technique and tools to use. For example, testers may use manual techniques, such as expert review and user testing, or automation tools, like screen readers and web accessibility checkers, to identify, evaluate, and enhance the user experience for various abilities and requirements.

  • Plan the accessibility test activities

    The final step is to create the activities for the accessibility test case. For example, testers may need to define the test scenarios, select test participants, prepare test materials, schedule test sessions, and document test results.

How to Perform Accessibility Testing?

Accessibility tests use a variety of methodologies, including manual and automated testing. It's essential to remember that testing accessibility is an ongoing process, and it's vital to regularly test and evaluate the accessibility of a website or application to ensure that it remains accessible over time.

Here are the general steps for performing accessibility testing:

  • Review accessibility standards and guidelines

    Understand the accessibility standards and guidelines for the product, service, or environment being tested, such as WCAG or the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) guidelines.

  • Prepare the test environment

    This step involves setting up the testing environment and tools, such as assistive technologies and testing software for use during the testing process.

  • Conduct manual testing

    Use manual testing techniques, such as navigation using only the keyboard, and methods like screen reader testing to test out the products, services, and environments.

  • Perform automated testing

    Implement automated testing tools to scan the website or application for accessibility issues, such as missing alternative text or poor color contrast.

  • Evaluate the results

    Analyze the testing process results and identify accessibility issues that need immediate addressing.

  • Fix the issues

    Make changes to your software product to address the accessibility issues identified during testing.

  • Retest

    Retest the software product to ensure that the accessibility issues are no longer present and that the changes do not introduce new accessibility issues.

  • Document and report

    Document the testing process and the results and report the findings to stakeholders.

Best Accessibility Testing Tools

Testing accessibility is a crucial subsegment of usability testing that follows the guidelines and strategies of the Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI). These guidelines provide a list of software tools for conformance evaluations and a variety of online resources and toolkits for streamlined accessibility testing of websites.

The goal of the accessibility test is to identify and eliminate any barriers that may prevent people with disabilities from fully accessing and using the website. Here are some top accessibility test tools that make this task a peach.

The market for specially-abled persons is expected to be $13 trillion, representing 3.43 billion consumers and employees worldwide. This indicates a growing need for the timely delivery of high-quality software.

WAVE

wave-accessibility

WAVE (Web Accessibility Evaluation Tools) is a free online tool that allows users to check for accessibility issues on a web page. It helps identify the potential usability problems with the website, such as missing alternative text, poor contrast, and improper headings.

Some of the features of WAVE include

  • It checks for compliance with various accessibility standards, such as WCAG and Section 508.
  • It provides an easy-to-understand report, highlighting issues on the webpage.
  • It includes a browser extension for Chrome and Firefox.
  • It checks for missing alt text, poor contrast, improper headings, and more.
  • You can use it for individual web pages or entire websites.

It's important to note that WAVE is not a comprehensive accessibility test tool, and it's essential to use other tools and techniques to ensure that a website is fully accessible to users with disabilities.

aXe

axe-accessibility

aXe is an accessibility engine for automated web testing, which allows users to check for compliance with various accessibility standards such as WCAG, Section 508, etc. It is readily available as an easy-to-use browser extension for Chrome, Firefox, and Edge, and you can also use it as a successful command-line tool or as a Node.js library.

Some of the features of aXe include:

Check out this video tutorial to learn how Cypress can be used to automate accessibility testing.

JAWS

jaws-accessibility

JAWS (Job Access With Speech) is a screen reader software designed to assist people who are blind or visually impaired in using a computer. It converts text and images on a computer screen into speech, which they can then hear through speakers or headphones. JAWS is compatible with Windows operating systems, and you can use it with a wide range of software applications, including web browsers.

Some of the features of JAWS include:

  • It provides support for multiple languages.
  • It includes a built-in text-to-speech engine that can read text aloud, allowing users to hear the text on the screen.
  • It has a built-in braille display that can display text in braille, allowing users to read the text by touch.
  • It has a wide range of commands and options that testers can use to customize how the software works.
  • It can be used with various input devices, including a keyboard, mouse, touch screen, and more.

Web Accessibility Inspector

web-accessibility-inspector

Web Accessibility Inspector (WAI) is a browser-based tool that helps developers and designers test and evaluate the accessibility of web pages. It is built into the Firefox browser and can be used to check for compliance with web accessibility standards like WCAG.

With WAI, users can check for issues related to keyboard navigation, text alternatives, and color contrast, among other things. It also provides detailed information on specific accessibility issues, including recommendations for how to fix them. WAI is a helpful tool for ensuring that web pages are accessible to users with disabilities.

As mentioned above, there are different tools for testing accessibility. However, setting up each tool for a specific user’s needs can be challenging. At the same time, you also need to check for cross browser accessibility and how your website renders across different browsers and OS. This is where continuous quality cloud testing platforms like LambdaTest come into the picture. LambdaTest is an AI-powered test orchestration and execution platform that lets you run manual and automated tests at scale with over 3000 real devices, browsers, and OS combinations.

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How To Perform Accessibility Testing Using LambdaTest?

LambdaTest lets you test the accessibility of websites and web apps using Screen Reader and Speech Viewer using NVDA (Non-Visual Desktop Access) for Windows and macOS platforms. In this section, let’s look at how to test the accessibility of your website on the LambdaTest platform.

  • Sign up on LambdaTest and login to your LambdaTest account
  • From the left sidebar, choose Real Device > Browser Testing.
  • left-sidebar
  • Enter a test URL of your choice, and choose VERSION, OS, and RESOLUTION. After that, click on START..
  • enter-url
  • After a cloud-based machine launches, click on the Settings icon and choose Accessibility.
  • cloud-based-machine
  • Select the checkbox that says Screen Reader, and you’ll get a verbal description of your web page using VoiceOver.
  • screen-reader-accessibility

Here is a quick video tutorial on getting started with real-time browser testing on the LambdaTest platform.

You can also subscribe to the LambdaTest YouTube Channel and stay updated with the latest tutorials and updates on Web application testing, Selenium testing, Playwright testing, Cypress accessibility testing, and more.

Accessibility Testing Metrics

Accessibility testing metrics measure the accessibility of a product, service, or environment. These metrics evaluate the effectiveness of accessibility efforts and identify areas for improvement.

It's important to note that different metrics may be more appropriate for different types of products and that the choice of metrics will depend on the specific goals and objectives of the accessibility tests. Here are a few examples of accessibility testing metrics. Let's take a look.

  • Compliance rate

    This metric measures the percentage of accessibility guidelines that the products, services, or environments meet. It includes compliance with specific standards, such as the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG).

  • Error rate

    This metric measures the number of accessibility issues found during testing per unit of measure (e.g., per page or hour).

  • Time to fix

    This metric measures the time frame it takes to fix an accessibility issue once a tester identifies it.

  • User satisfaction

    This metric measures the satisfaction of users with disabilities in using the product, service, or environment.

  • Assistive technology support

    This metric measures the level of support for assistive technologies, such as screen readers or switch controls.

  • Accessibility score

    This metric measures the accessibility of a website or application on a scale of 0-100, where 100 is fully accessible.

  • Impact on user experience

    This metric measures the impact of accessibility issues on the user experience for people with disabilities.

  • Number of accessibility issues

    It is the number of accessibility issues found during testing.

  • Number of accessibility error types

    This metric measures the number of accessibility errors found during testing.

Common Accessibility Testing Myths and Challenges

There are several myths surrounding accessibility tests that can lead organizations to misunderstand their purpose and value. The accessibility test is for everyone; it's cost-effective, relevant to all products, services, and environments, and an ongoing process. Unfortunately, people have been surrounded by too many myths to believe in all of them.

On that note, let's check out some common misconceptions about accessibility tests.

  • Only for people with disabilities

    This is not true! Accessibility tests are for everyone and are about ensuring that everyone can access and use a product, service, or software environment, for that matter, regardless of their abilities.

  • Expensive

    While accessibility tests can require additional resources, it's cost-effective in the long run as your product is accessible to and easily usable by a broader range of users and can avoid legal disputes.

  • Only required for public-facing websites

    Testing for accessibility is relevant to all products, services, and environments, whether public-facing or not, as accessibility is a human right.

  • A one-time process

    Accessibility is an ongoing process and requires regular testing and updates to ensure that software products, your services, and the respective environments remain accessible to everyone.

  • Automated testing can replace manual testing

    Automated testing can be a valuable option for identifying accessibility issues, but it's not a substitute for manual testing. 100% reliance on automation can miss specific accessibility issues.

  • Accessibility is only about making things look suitable for users with disabilities

    Accessibility is about making sure that people with disabilities can access and use a product, service, or environment in the same way as everyone else, and not just making it look good.

  • Smaller Market Segment

    According to the report on the global economics report of disability, the estimated population of persons with impairment is an estimated market larger than China. Together, the market for disabled people controls over $13 trillion.

Best Practices for Accessibility Testing

It's impossible to amount to something significant without following a pragmatic approach. In short, do everything right to make the most out of accessibility tests for your offering. Let's check out some of its best practices.

  • Test early and often

    Testing accessibility should be a part of the development process, and testers should perform it at multiple stages, such as during design, development, and QA.

  • Use manual and automated testing

    Both manual and automated testing methods have their strengths and weaknesses. Automated testing can quickly identify common issues, while manual testing can reveal more complex problems.

  • Test with real users

    User testing is the best way to discover and address accessibility issues. Test with a diverse group of users, including those with different disabilities.

  • Test across devices and browsers

    Accessibility issues can be different depending on the device and browser being used. Test on different platforms, browsers, and devices.

    ...
  • Check for compatibility with assistive technologies

    It is important to test the website or application with different assistive technologies, like screen readers, to ensure that it is compatible with them.

  • Document and track issues

    Keep a record of all accessibility issues found during testing and track them to resolution.

  • Regularly update and maintain your site

    Websites are dynamic and frequently change, so accessibility testing should be a regular practice to maintain the accessibility of a website.

  • Use Web Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG)

    WCAG provides a set of guidelines and success criteria for accessible web design.

  • Select the right tools

    A wide array of tools help you identify and fix accessibility issues. They help automate some of the testing processes and quickly identify common issues.

  • Integrate accessibility tests into the development process

    Making accessibility tests a part of the development process rather than an afterthought ensures that accessibility is considered from the start and can help prevent issues from arising in the first place.

Conclusion

Businesses must ensure their website and app content is accessible to all individuals, including those with impairments. This includes accommodating the unique needs of individuals with disabilities such as hearing loss, partial blindness, and motor limitations. Implementing best practices such as proper color contrast, appropriate multimedia placement, and using captions and alt text are key to achieving accessibility.

To ensure compliance with regulations like WCAG, Section 508 and the ADA Act, businesses should seek accessibility testing from a reputable QA and independent software testing services provider to ensure their apps and websites are fully accessible to all users.

Frequently asked questions

  • General ...
What is accessibility testing?
Accessibility testing evaluates a website or application to ensure it is usable by individuals with disabilities. It checks for compliance with WCAG and ADA.
Why is accessibility testing important?
Accessibility testing is crucial because it helps to ensure that all users, including those with impairments, can access and use a website or application. This helps to promote inclusivity and can also help to avoid potential legal issues.
What are some common accessibility testing tools?
Some common accessibility testing tools include automated testing tools such as WAVE, aXe, JAWS, etc.
What are some best practices for accessibility testing?
Best practices for accessibility testing include testing with real users with disabilities, testing with multiple assistive technologies, testing across different browsers and devices, and testing for compliance with accessibility guidelines and standards.
Who should perform accessibility testing?
Accessibility testing should be performed by trained professionals with knowledge of accessibility guidelines and standards and experience testing for accessibility. Some organizations may outsource accessibility testing to a specialized testing services provider.
What is web accessibility testing?
Web accessibility testing ensures that websites are inclusive and user-friendly, accommodating individuals with disabilities and enhancing their browsing experience.
What are some examples of accessibility testing?
Examples of accessibility testing include keyboard accessibility review, evaluation of UI structure, style disablement, content scaling, text sizing, and utilization of accessibility testing tools for improved accuracy and efficiency.
What is the QA process for accessibility?
The QA process for accessibility involves verifying that software applications are inclusive and usable by a wide range of individuals, including those with disabilities like vision impairment, hearing issues, and cognitive conditions.

Author's Profile

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Supriya Singh

Supriya Singh is a Chemical Engineer as well as a Tech enthusiast keen to learn continuously and grow in a technologically advanced world. She is a freelance Technical content writer and loves to share content regarding the latest technologies and trends. She believes that knowledge has the power to transform lives and is dedicated to being a part of this transformative journey.

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Mohammed Afzal

Afzal, a growth strategist, brings over six years of comprehensive expertise in software development, teaching, content creation, and leadership to LambdaTest. With a commendable 4+ year stint at Coding Ninjas, where he was an integral member from the early bootstrap phase, Afzal played a pivotal role in launching and overseeing the Blog Platform. His leadership steered a content team that delivered blogs across a diverse range of topics, including Data Structures, Algorithm Design, SQL, Database Management, Full Stack Web Development, AI, Machine Learning, etc. Having served as a Software Developer for an early-stage startup and an Instructor at UpGrad early in his career, Afzal has honed his skills across various facets of the tech industry.

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