White box testing is a software testing method in which the internal structure and implementation of the software being tested are known and used as the basis for designing the test cases. It involves testing the software at the code level and requires a deep understanding of the code and the design of the software. It is also known as glass box, transparent box, clear box, or structural testing.
Most testers have already had some experience with this box-testing at some point in their careers. Techniques like this are battling for existence in a world that is becoming increasingly agile-driven. Adopting agile approaches does not include putting off any tasks to meet the project effectively.
Testing is one of the main areas, especially in white-box, where we see projects in the most impacted areas and teams cut corners for agility. In this tutorial, we will covers what whitebox testing is, why do we use it, advantages & disadvantages, types, and different techniques to perform, and various scope.
White box testing evaluates a software application's code and internal structure. It ensures that internal operations are carried out according to the specifications when you know an application's internal structure. Additionally, each interior component must follow a proper framework.
A tester who understands the test codes is able to see the internal workings of the software and has access to the source code, so they can design test cases that thoroughly, test the different code paths and ensure that the software is working correctly. As a result, the tester must always possess knowledge of or access to the system's source code, typically provided in specification papers.
Let's say that a software application consists of three components. Before integration testing is performed, each component is tested independently by the tester as part of the development cycle. In the early stages of the development cycle, bugs can be found very early, saving time.
A tester will then be able to construct and carry out test cases that cover all conceivable situations and circumstances that the system component is supposed to handle after they have access to the amount of technical information that is often only exposed to a developer.
A white box test is often described in terms of Static Application Security Testing (SAST), which checks source code or binaries and provides feedback about bugs. This process examines a code's inner workings and provides inputs.
Before performing whitebox testing, there are some entry and exit requirements that needs to checked which are mentioned below:
When implementing white-box testing approach to test software applications, testers can consider the following two approaches:
The tester must also be well knowledgeable about secure coding techniques. Often, one of the main goals of software testing is security. The tester should be able to identify security flaws and thwart assaults from hackers and gullible users who could willfully or accidentally introduce harmful code into the application.
Let's discuss the pointers that describe why should you perform white-box testing:
Therefore, ensuring that crucial systems and components are bug-free is essential. And thorough testing is necessary to ensure that a mission-critical system is bug-free. Ensure the high-quality performance of your systems through testing. Nevertheless, it is an integral and essential approach.
In this section of the white-box testing tutorial, let's look at the phases of the whitebox testing process.
You should focus initially on the smallest logical module or component of the system under test and then jump to the next one.
Here you're attempting to understand each testable path for a specific feature, component, or module. Writing test cases to cover each of the various pathways is aided by identifying them. You can create a flow diagram to highlight the desired pathways.
Let's now have a look at different types of testing modules that are included under the domain of whitebox testing.
Traditionally, there has been a distinct division between developers and quality assurance testers in the software development process. To ensure that the functionality they have built satisfies the requirements, developers install it and conduct QA tests.
White-box testing is carried out by someone well-versed in the application's internal structure. Following are some of the advantages of whitebox testing.
Following are some of the disadvantages of whitebox testing:
One of the primary aims of white-box test is to cover as much source code as possible. Code coverage is a metric that shows how much of an application's code contains unit tests that validate its functioning.
Using techniques such as statement coverage, branch coverage, and path coverage, it is possible to check how much of an application's logic is executed and verified by the unit test suite under code coverage. These techniques are discussed further below:
There are two test criteria for an "IF statement":
Let's look at the differences between these two box-testing methods:
|White-box testing||Black-box testing|
|It is usually done by developers.||It is usually done by testers.|
|The tester is familiar with the software's internal structure and code.||During this type of software testing, the program or code's internal structure or code is hidden.|
|It requires code implementation.||It does not require code implementation.|
|It is the structural testing of an application.||It is the functional testing of an application.|
|Software testing begins after the detailed design document is completed.||This testing can start with the required specifications documentation.|
|It is a time-consuming process.||It is the least time-consuming method.|
|It is ideal for algorithm testing.||It is not ideal for algorithm testing.|
|It is mainly applicable to lower levels of software testing.||It applies primarily to higher levels of software testing.|
A tester can try every possible combination and permutation the program may produce by testing at the source code level. You can compile and fix any potential evolving flaws once testing completes satisfactorily.
Writing test cases that provide comprehensive coverage of the application logic is necessary. You must have a solid understanding of the application, the testing requirements, and the source code. Also, familiarity with logic and computer languages is necessary.
However, testing every conceivable outcome of the application's loops is not feasible. It implies that testing in depth is not viable for complex systems. Nevertheless, white-box is still effective as it is realistically practicable and valuable to test by choosing significant logical routes and data structures.
White-box testing ensures a module has run through each of its separate pathways at least once. Below are the scope of whitebox testing:
Testing is required at the system, integration, and unit levels of software development. Verifying an application's operational flow is one of the fundamental aims of whitebox testing. It compares a sequence of specified inputs to desired or expected outputs to identify bugs when detailed information does not provide the desired outcome.
Developing white-box software testing, it is a valuable method for carrying it out. Even while this testing strategy can be costly and time-consuming, it is still the only method to ensure that you test all aspects of the code. The evaluated application has a significant impact on the complexity involved.
While more extensive programming programs take days, weeks, or even longer to thoroughly test, a small application that executes a single straightforward function may be white box tested in minutes. A software application should undergo whitebox tests throughout development, after writing, and once again following each revision.
So, get familiar with the code and implement white-box testing in full swing!
There are several techniques that can be used in white-box testing to validate the internal structure and implementation of a software application. Here are three main whitebox testing techniques: Statement Coverage, Branch Coverage. and Path Coverage.
Black-box testing focuses on the functionality of a software application and does not require knowledge of the internal structure or implementation of the code. On the other hand, White-box testing involves testing the internal structure and implementation of the code.
The term 'white' comes from the metaphor of a white-box, which is transparent and allows the user to see inside. That’s why white-box testing is also known as transparent box testing, clear box testing, glass box testing, or structural testing.
Developers are responsible for implementing a code, and have a deep understanding. As a result, they are well-suited to perform whitebox testing, as they can use their knowledge of the code to design test cases that exercise all the different code paths and identify issues such as logic errors, code defects, and security vulnerabilities.
White-box testing is a method of testing in which the internal structure of the software being tested is known to the tester and is used to design the test cases. It is used to test the internal structure and logic of a program, and it is typically done by developers as part of the testing process.
White-box testing is a software testing technique where internal code structure is examined to assess functionality, logic, and coverage. It involves scrutinizing the code directly, allowing testers to identify and rectify errors. This approach ensures comprehensive test coverage and enhances software quality and reliability.
White box penetration testing is a comprehensive security assessment where the tester has full knowledge of the internal workings and structure of the target system. It involves analyzing the source code, architecture, and design, allowing for a thorough evaluation of vulnerabilities and potential exploitation.
Performing static white box testing offers several advantages. It enables early detection of coding errors, helps uncover security vulnerabilities, enhances code maintainability, and facilitates code review. Moreover, it aids in optimizing software performance and promotes adherence to coding standards. Ultimately, it contributes to the development of robust and reliable software systems.
Static white box testing is a software testing technique that examines the internal structure and code of a program without executing it. It aims to identify potential defects, vulnerabilities, and code quality issues. Through careful analysis, developers and testers can ensure the reliability and efficiency of the software.