Most Comprehensive Selenium IDE Tutorial
Automation • Selenium Tutorial •
47172 Views | 17 Min Read
Earlier testers would often refrain from using record and replay tools like Selenium IDE for automation testing and opt for using scripting frameworks like Selenium WebDriver, WebDriverIO, Cypress, etc. The major downside of record & playback (or replay) tools is the inability to leverage tools for writing scalable tests.
Even though Selenium IDE offered ease of usage, it had a couple of issues. For example, it had no support for cross browser testing, running parallel tests, and more. This is why, when development for Selenium IDE stopped in 2017, many testers were under the impression that Selenium IDE had died.
But this has changed recently, as Selenium IDE has gained traction once again, and its usage is gradually increasing. The reason? Selenium IDE has overcome its previous limitations and now supports cross browser testing, parallel tests, and a lot more! Earlier it was only available as a Chrome extension but now it can be downloaded as a Firefox add-on as well!
In one of our earlier blogs, Selenium IDE for test automation was included as one of the top automation testing trends to watch out for in 2021. In this Selenium IDE tutorial, I’ll tell you what is Selenium IDE and why you need to consider Selenium IDE for test automation.
TABLE OF CONTENT
- What Is Selenium IDE?
- Why Selenium IDE Trending In The QA World
- Growing Traction Around ‘Codeless Automation Testing Tools’
- Positive ‘Features Development’ Timeline
- SIDE Runner For Cross Browser Testing
- Parallel execution of scripts via SIDE runner
- Selenium IDE Now Provides More Resilient Tests
- Support Offered By The New Selenium IDE
- Exporting test cases to popular programming languages
- Reuse of Test Cases
- Extensibility with Plugins
- Conditional Waits for test automation
- Integration into DevOps Toolchain
- Management Of Selenium IDE Scripts In A Code Repository
What Is Selenium IDE?
Selenium IDE was introduced in 2006 as a record & replay tool primarily used for the development of Selenium test cases as a part of the Selenium suite. To get a quick refresher about Selenium, make sure to check out what is Selenium blog – it would lay the right platform to kick-start web automation testing with Selenium IDE.
To get started with Selenium automation testing using Selenium IDE, you need to install the extension (or add-on) for the corresponding browser. In addition, the IDE provides a GUI for recording interactions with the website.
Although Selenium IDE was earlier available to test on Firefox browsers, it is also available to test on Chrome browsers. The IDE now comes with cross browser support and also supports parallel testing in Selenium. You can use the links down below to download the Chrome and Firefox extension for Selenium IDE.
Once the extension (or add-on) is installed, you can start recording the tests. The interactions with the AUT (Application Under Test) are recorded, which are further categorized as shown below:
- Description (Optional)
Key Features Of Selenium IDE
Selenium IDE is an easy-to-use tool that provides instant feedback and lets you run tests on any browser + OS combination using the SIDE (or command-line) runner for the Selenium IDE.
Below are some of the key features:
- Execute tests (and test-suites) – Selenium IDE lets you execute a specific test or a complete test-suite that comprises a group of tests.
- Cross browser testing – It can be used for automated browser testing as cross browser tests can be executed using the SIDE runner.
- Debugging – Debug tests from the IDE itself by setting breakpoints in Selenium and pausing on exceptions (as and when they are encountered).
- Rich command-set – Selenium IDE supports a number of commands that can be used to raise asserts, insert waits, create loops, and more.
- Control Flow – Selenium IDE has an extensive set of commands that enable control flow structure. Commands such as if, if..else, etc., aid in executing conditional tests from the IDE.
- Test case reuse – The run commands in Selenium IDE let you reuse a particular test case inside another test case (or test suite).
- Grouping of Selenese commands – Selenium IDE supports the grouping of Selenese commands (or set of Selenium commands) that lets you run tests. A sequence of Selenese commands makes a test script.
- Easy modification and comparison of test cases – Test scripts created using the Selenium IDE are stored as JSON files. This makes it easy to compare, modify, and inspect tests.
A sample test-script for our Selenium IDE tutorial (Google-Search.side) to search LambdaTest on Google is shown below:
The growing list of questions tagged Selenium IDE on StackOverflow does indicate that testers into Selenium automation testing are taking a note of the Selenium IDE and there is growing interest in the community. It also helps the development team prioritize the next set of features that should make it in future releases.
For testers into automated browser testing, Selenium IDE is a worthy option to explore as it lets you export the test cases (created using the IDE) to popular programming languages such as Python, C# with xUnit, and more. So, with curiosity mounting about the IDE, let us take a look at the positive aspects of the IDE in more detail in this Selenium IDE tutorial.
Why Selenium IDE Trending In The QA World
The Selenium IDE is far from perfect but the good part is that it is much more than a record & playback tool. The latest version of Selenium IDE is more feature-driven in comparison to its predecessors.
Though it cannot be considered a replacement of Selenium WebDriver that is widely used for Selenium automation testing, it does add immense value to the activity of automated browser testing. So let’s take a deep dive into the reasons in this Selenium IDE tutorial.
LambdaTest offers Selenium 101 test automation certification for developers to boost their skill set in Selenium automation testing using any programming language of their choice. This certification is designed with the assumption that you know the basics of programming languages supported by Selenium and related frameworks to be able to automate Selenium tests better while preparing for a professional-level certification exam.
Here’s a short glimpse of the Selenium 101 certification offered by LambdaTest:
Growing Traction Around ‘Codeless Automation Testing Tools’
The demand for tools that help in codeless automation testing tools built on AI and visual modeling is expected to rise as they aid in accelerated creation of test scenarios. This lowers the barrier to entry, as testers do not require coding knowledge to develop the test cases. It also minimizes the time spent on repetitive test cases.
Getting started with Selenium automation testing in this Selenium IDE tutorial requires only the installation of the add-on (or extension). Selenium IDE lets you generate test cases from the IDE by recording actions that are a part of the tests. “No code” tools are becoming increasingly popular and the development timeline of Selenium IDE makes the premise of codeless automation testing even more interesting!
Also Read – Top 10 Codeless Testing Tools For 2021
Positive ‘Features Development’ Timeline
The Selenium IDE project development stopped in 2017. It was available only for the Firefox browser and it was announced that from Firefox 55 onwards, the Selenium IDE will no longer be supported.
The IDE was later re-built with modern APIs, and important features for Selenium test automation such as parallel testing, cross browser support, test resiliency, and more are now a part of the Selenium IDE.
SIDE Runner For Cross Browser Testing
The availability of a wide range of browsers has made cross browser testing extremely important as your web application needs to work seamlessly across different browsers. As mentioned before in this Selenium IDE tutorial, parallel test execution can be performed on different online browsers and on Selenium WebDriver servers, without writing a single line of code!
This is possible using SIDE runner, the command-line test runner in Selenium IDE. So, to get started with automated browser testing in this Selenium IDE tutorial, you just need to install SIDE runner and get the necessary browser drivers if the tests have to be executed locally.
SIDE runner can be installed by triggering the following command from the terminal (npm package that is distributed with Node.js has to be installed before issuing the command):
npm install -g selenium-side-runner
Once the SIDE runner is installed, the following commands have to be executed to install the Selenium WebDrivers for different virtual browsers:
# Installation of Chrome WebDriver
npm install -g chromedriver
# Installation of Microsoft Edge Driver
npm install -g edgedriver
# Installation of Geckodriver for Firefox
npm install -g geckodriver
# Installation of IE WebDriver
npm install -g iedriver
The test scenario recorded using the Selenium IDE has to be saved as a .side file.
The following commands can be used to execute the test on different browsers for local test execution in this Selenium IDE tutorial:
Shown below is the execution snapshot of the Google Search (for LambdaTest) example in this Selenium IDE tutorial executed on Firefox:
Parallel execution of scripts via SIDE runner
The old Selenium IDE could only execute test cases (or test suites) in a serial manner. Parallel testing is extremely important when it comes to automated browser testing as it accelerates the testing process.
The new Selenium IDE lets you execute tests in parallel. Test parallelization in a test suite is possible by changing relevant settings in Selenium IDE. The SIDE runner also lets you execute tests in parallel by just inputting the number of parallel processes that have to be executed. The -w option is used to control the number of parallel processes that are running.
Shown below is the execution snapshot of a test suite that comprises two tests in this Selenium IDE tutorial– Google search for LambdaTest and DuckDuckGo search for LambdaTest.
Also Read – How To Speed Up Selenium Test Cases Execution?
Selenium IDE Now Provides More Resilient Tests
During the automation testing process, you would have come across scenarios where an automation test that passed in the previous software release failed in the current release. This is common with Selenium test automation and automated browser testing.
The web locators on which actions are performed (as a part of automation tests) might have changed due to changes in the UI. In addition, as the product evolves, tests become more complex, and failure of a certain test due to accessibility issues with certain object locators might lead to a reduction in the test efficiency.
Selenium IDE builds resilience in automation tests, as it records multiple locators for each element that it interacts with. In case the Selenium IDE is unable to find a particular locator during the playback process, it will try with all the other locators on the web page until one of them is successful.
Shown below is an Selenium IDE tutorial example of how the IDE builds test resiliency. Apart from locators based on CSS, Selenium IDE also captures the XPath expression for the Click command.
Also Read – Locators In Selenium WebDriver With Examples
Support Offered By The New Selenium IDE
As mentioned earlier in this Selenium IDE tutorial, the old Selenium IDE had a lot of limitations from a functional perspective. On the other hand, the latest version of Selenium IDE is more feature-rich; the major sets of features are given below:
Support For Looping And Condition Logic
During the process of Selenium test automation, you would have come across scenarios where a set of commands have to be executed only when certain conditions are met. Examples are pop-ups (or notices) regarding users’ consent before using cookies, newsletter subscriptions, etc.
Conditional logic (or control flow) is possible with Selenium IDE through conditional branching that enables changing the test behavior. It also supports looping through the tests where a set of commands can be executed repeatedly based on predefined criteria.
Some of the popular control flow commands that help with conditional branching and looping in Selenium IDE are:
- if, else if, else, end
- times, end
- do, repeat if
- while, end
Shown below is an example of conditional branching in this Selenium IDE tutorial:
Support for Embedded Code
The test result of the script execution can be subsequently used in a control flow command to perform conditional execution.
Support For Editing Test Scripts
This looks like a basic feature, but it was not a part of the old versions of Selenium IDE. If an old test script does not work in a new release, the entire script had to be recorded again. The entire purpose of automation (and even record & playback) testing is lost if script editing is not possible.
Test modification is possible with the new Selenium IDE as the recorded tests (*.side) are stored in a JSON format. Furthermore, Selenium IDE also supports editing of test scripts where commands could be inserted, removed, or deleted. Thus, if you are well-versed with JSON and minor edits need to be done, you can open the .side file and edit the test script accordingly. However, Selenium IDE should be used for editing test scripts where major changes are involved.
Shown below is an example of editing test scripts in this Selenium IDE tutorial:
Support for Debugging
The old Selenium IDE did not have support for debugging test scripts. The lack of editing scripts and no support for debugging were considered deal-breakers for testers who were interested in using the IDE for Selenium automation testing.
You also get features such as pausing on exceptions and setting breakpoints. Click on the location in the test script where a breakpoint has to be inserted and click on the Toggle breakpoint. In the example below, the execution has halted at the location where it encounters a breakpoint:
Exporting test cases to popular programming languages
Using the ‘export’ feature in Selenium IDE, a test or a suite of tests can be exported to popular programming languages. Currently, the languages and test frameworks supported are:
- C# NUnit
- C# xUnit
- Java JUnit
- Ruby RSpec
- Python PyTest
To export the test case/test suite, right-click on the test, select Export, and choose the programming language of your choice.
Reusability of Test Cases
There are cases where particular test logic needs to be executed across different tests. Re-creating the test logic (or test steps) for various tests is not a feasible solution. For example, the prerequisite for performing automation testing on different sections of the LambdaTest website requires a valid user-id & password to log into the platform. The prerequisite (i.e., Login for signing into LambdaTest) can be created as a separate script.
Selenium IDE now supports modular tests that let you re-use one test case inside another. In the above example of this Selenium IDE tutorial, the Login logic can be invoked by different test scripts, thereby easing the maintenance of the test suite. The run script command in Selenium IDE is used to invoke one script from another.
Extensibility with Plugins
The new Selenium IDE is extensible through the use of plugins. Here is the detailed plugin guide for Selenium IDE.
This makes it easier to integrate third-party services or introduce new commands to the IDE. For example, companies with integrated Selenium WebDriver offerings for Selenium automation testing might get interested in developing plugins for Selenium IDE.
Conditional Waits for test automation
Waits are used in Selenium automation testing to handle the dynamic loading of elements on a web page (or web application). A test script that attempts interacting with a web element that is not yet loaded will lead to failure.
Now the Selenium IDE first waits for the page to load to ensure that web elements on which commands have to be executed are available on the page. Along with this, the IDE has options to control the test execution speed from the toolbar.
The IDE also provides a set speed command that lets you set the execution speed by adding a global delay that changes all the test runs.
In circumstances where the built-in wait strategies in the IDE do not suffice, there is also an option to use explicit wait commands in Selenium IDE such as wait for element editable, wait for element not present, wait for element not visible, etc. These commands are almost similar to commands that help in achieving conditional waits in Selenium WebDriver.
Integration into DevOps Toolchain
Popular CI/CD tools such as Jenkins, Travis, etc., let you upload input files. The Selenium IDE can be integrated into the DevOps toolchain as the SIDE runner (i.e., selenium-side-runner) can be called from the command line, and the .side file can fit into CI build scripts.
Management Of Selenium IDE Scripts In A Code Repository
Test scripts recorded using the new Selenium IDE are stored as JSON files. This is unlike many other record & playback tools where the test scripts are stored in the binary format.
As scripts are stored in the JSON format, rudimentary operations on test scripts such as comparing, editing, and more are also applicable on the test scripts. For example, shown below is the snippet of the test script that we have used so far in the blog:
Hence, software version control platforms such as GitHub, GitLab, etc., can be used for maintaining the Selenium IDE scripts.
Wrapping It Up!
In this Selenium IDE tutorial, we explored how Selenium IDE is increasingly becoming popular in the test community with the plethora of features that aid in cross browser testing, parallel testing, and easy maintenance of the test scripts. It also supports embedded code and is extensible via plugins.
Selenium IDE has become more than a simple record & playback tool with features that are in line with the feature development of Selenium WebDriver. Moreover, the code export feature has become one of the ideal tools to get started with automated browser testing using the Selenium framework. In case you want practical tips for test automation with Selenium, refer to the blog linked.
That’s all for this Selenium IDE tutorial! I hope you liked the article. Help your peers know how crucial the IDE can be for them by sharing this Selenium IDE tutorial with them or by retweeting us. Happy Testing!!! 😃
Frequently Asked Questions
What is Selenium IDE used for?
The Selenium IDE (Integrated Development Environment) is a tool from the Selenium Test Suite Suite. It’s an easy-to-use tool and can be used by someone new to developing automated tests for their web applications.
Does Selenium IDE require coding?
Selenium IDE is an open-source web automation testing tool, part of the Selenium suite, and more recently the WebDriver JSONWire protocol (WebDriverJS). It is distinct from Selenium WebDriver and RC. Unlike Selenium WebDriver and RC, it does not require any programming logic to write its test scripts; rather, you can simply record your interactions with the browser to create test cases.
What can be recorded in Selenium IDE?
The Selenium IDE tool suite provides a simple way to record and playback test cases. It is an add-on for the Firefox browser that uses the Selenium RC API. The tool will effectively launch an automated testing process in Selenium RC and work as a virtual user, recording everything you visit and do and automatically replaying it, and making sure that no bugs slip through.
Written by Himanshu Sheth
With 7+ years of experience in test automation, BDD, TDD, Himanshu Sheth work as an automation engineer with LambdaTest. He is also an avid blogger.
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