TestNG is a Java-based open-source test automation framework. It covers a broader range of test categories: unit, functional, end-to-end, integration, etc. This framework is quite popular among developers and testers for test creation due to its useful features like grouping, dependence, prioritization, ease of using multiple annotations, etc. Another reason for its popularity is that it helps them organize tests in a structured way and enhances the scripts' maintainability and readability.
Though, it is developed on the same lines as NUnit and JUnit. But, its advanced features make it a much more robust framework in comparison to its peers.
TestNG is a testing framework created by Cédric Beust to cater to a lot of our testing needs. It is widely used in Selenium. Wondering what NG in TestNG stands for? Well, it refers to 'Next Generation.' TestNG is similar to Junit but is more powerful in controlling your program's execution flow. As the nature of the framework, it tends to make our tests more structured and provides better validation points through TestNG use.
Some of the noteworthy features of TestNG are:
A basic process flow of a TestNG program involves the following steps:
Keep reading to learn more about TestNG, or use the chapter links to jump around this TestNG Tutorial.
To install TestNG, you can download the library file in your system and then manually add it to the project's build path where you want to use it. Also, you can install TestNG with Eclipse or TestNG with IntelliJ.
Want to install TestNG in Eclipse but not sure how to do that?
Want to install TestNG in Eclipse but not sure how to do that? Well, you don't need to worry, as we've put together a step by step guide to help you start automation testing with TestNG. But before that, you must install Java if you haven't already, as TestNG is based on Java.
To write your first test script using TestNG, you first need to set up a TestNG project and then write the scripts.
Given below are some prerequisites for getting started with a TestNG project :
Ensure that you meet them so that you can continue without any hiccups.
In the previous chapter, we learned about creating a TestNG project in Eclipse and how to run our first ever Selenium Test Script. Now that you know how to run a TestNG project Eclipse, it is time to dig deeper into TestNG.
So far, we've only learned how to run a single test script, but in practical scenarios, that simply won't do. When it comes to Selenium test automation, running one test at a time will not be very beneficial. You will have to run multiple test cases to make the most of a Selenium Grid. In this chapter, we'll dive deep into how we can execute multiple test files from a single file known as the TestNG XML file.
Do you know annotations were formally added to the Java language in JDK 5? With TestNG, you can use annotations to annotate test classes.
Wondering What an Annotation is?
Well, an annotation is a tag that provides additional information about the class or method. It is represented by ‘@’ prefix. TestNG uses these annotations to help in making a robust framework.
Do you know that parameterization in TestNG or any other framework is considered one of the best ways to run tests in parallel on multiple different test environments? Especially if you have to regularly change the test environments to test on? Also, parameterization in TestNG allows you to perform data-driven testing more efficiently. By declaring parameters, you won’t have to write multiple test automation scripts for different test inputs of a single test suite, making it easier for you to maintain your test automation code.
Now that you know how parameterization can make your work easier, you must be interested in learning how to perform it. Well, this chapter will cover parameterization in TestNG for Selenium automation testing using both DataProvider and the Parameter annotation with TestNG.xml.
In our earlier chapter, we have learned that Parameterization In TestNG helps us pass data through the code and prevent hard-coding. However, TestNG parameters enable us to pass the values only once per execution cycle. To overcome this, we can use DataProvider in TestNG. It allows us to pass multiple parameters to a single test in a single execution. Using DataProviders, we can easily pass multiple values to a test in just one execution cycle.
Before jumping into understanding DataProvider in TestNG and how we can efficiently use them in our test scripts for Selenium test automation, we think it’s a good idea to point out what a DataProvider is in TestNG quickly.
Similar to TestNG Parameters, DataProviders are a means to pass data to test scripts in TestNG. Using DataProvider in TestNG, we can easily inject multiple values into the same test case. It comes inbuilt in TestNG and is popularly used in data-driven frameworks.
DataProvider in TestNG is used to inject multiple values into the same test case; this chapter explains how to use them in your Selenium test automation scripts.
There are different interfaces provided by Java that allow you to modify TestNG behavior. These interfaces are further known as TestNG Listeners in Selenium WebDriver. TestNG Listeners also allows you to customize the test logs or report according to your project requirements.
TestNG Listeners in Selenium WebDriver are modules that listen to certain events and keep track of test execution while performing some action at every stage of test execution.
TestNG Listeners in Selenium WebDriver can be implemented at two levels:
Cucumber is a test automation framework which leverages Behavior Driven Development for collaboration between Business and IT teams. It empowers a user to define an application’s behavior in plain English language, making it easier for non-programmers to understand the acceptance criteria.
The core of cucumber has been developed in Ruby programming language; however, it supports all the majorly used programming languages for testing such as Java, C#, Python. In this chapter, we will be demonstrating automation testing with Selenium, Cucumber, and TestNG.