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  • June 21 2023

Test Process : With Examples And Best Practices

Explore what is the test process, its approaches and techniques, and how it can contribute to the effectiveness and efficiency of testing efforts.

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The test process is a comprehensive framework encompassing various activities, methodologies, and tools to verify and validate a software application’s functionality, performance, security, and reliability. It involves a systematic approach to identify potential issues and ensure that the final deliverables meet or exceed the desired quality criteria.

In the current time of highly competitive business, organizations seek to deliver high-quality applications to the end-users. However, end-user expectations for complex and advanced features of software applications are also increasing with the advancement of software technologies and methodologies.

According to a report by Statista, in the third quarter of 2022, the retention rate of Android applications was only 2.6% after 30 days from installation. However, for iOS applications, the retention rate was 43% after 30 days from installation.

The above statistics show the critical need for delivering bug- and error-free software applications to capture and retain users. This can be achieved by having a robust software testing process.


Testing plays a key role in ensuring the success of software applications. By identifying and fixing defects early in the development life cycle, thorough testing significantly reduces the risk of costly and reputation-damaging issues post-release.

Organizations must prioritize a well-structured and rigorous test process to meet these challenges. This process encompasses several stages: test planning, test case design, test execution, defect tracking, and reporting. Each stage contributes to uncovering potential flaws, verifying functionality, ensuring performance optimization, and enhancing overall software quality.

Learning about the test process is crucial for both individual professionals and organizations. Understanding the test process equips professionals with the necessary skills and knowledge to excel in roles such as quality assurance engineers, software testers, and test managers. It opens up career advancement and specialization opportunities in an increasingly competitive job market.

What is the Test Process?

Software testing is an important part of the Software Development Life Cycle. It helps find defects and bugs in the software applications and ensures their fix before being released into the market. The steps or phases involved in software testing are regarded as a test process.

In other words, the test process evaluates the software applications and their components to find their compliance with the Software Requirements Specification (SRS) with the intent to identify errors.

The test process involves identifying defects, validating functionality, and verifying if the software applications meet the specified requirements. It follows an order of gathering information, analyzing data, and executing tests. It involves careful planning, execution, analysis, reporting, and continuous improvement to ensure reliable and accurate results.

Why is the Test Process important?

The testing process holds great significance across various industries and domains. It is pivotal in ensuring product, system, software, and service quality, reliability, and effectiveness. Here are some key reasons why the test process is important:

  • Quality Assurance: Testing is an integral part of the quality assurance process. An accurate testing process helps detect defects, bugs, and errors during the early stages of development, allowing for timely fixes before the product is released. It builds trust and confidence among customers and users by ensuring high-quality software applications and services.
  • Risk Mitigation: The testing process helps mitigate risks associated with software applications. By identifying potential issues and vulnerabilities, testing allows organizations to proactively address them, minimizing the chances of failures, security breaches, or other adverse events that could significantly impact business operations.
  • Verification and Validation: The testing process is crucial in verifying that software applications meet the specified requirements and functions as intended. It validates whether the implemented solution aligns with the desired functionality, usability, performance, and other critical attributes.
  • Enhanced User Experience: The testing process involved in software application development helps deliver a positive user experience. It involves usability testing and user acceptance testing; with this, organizations can identify user preferences and areas of improvement. This feedback helps refine the software application resulting in an improved user experience.
  • Cost Savings: Detecting and rectifying defects during the testing phase is generally more cost-effective than addressing them later in the development cycle or after the product is released. Executing the test process helps catch and address issues early on; testing helps reduce rework, maintenance costs, and potential financial losses caused by faulty software applications or services.
  • Compliance and Standards: In many industries, compliance with regulations, standards, or best practices is mandatory. Following systematic order of the test process ensures that software applications and systems adhere to these requirements, ensuring legal compliance, data security, and upholding industry standards.

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Test Process Phases

Testing is not a single activity; it involves a process that must be planned to avoid any issues in the Software Development Life Cycle. Here are a detailed explanation of the test process activities:


Planning and Control

An important aspect of the test process is planning and controlling. Their role is to ensure that testing activities are organized, efficient, and effective in achieving desired results. The following are some key factors to consider when planning and controlling tests:

Test Planning

The first phase in the test process involves creating a robust test plan. During this, we plan for the test by creating a document highlighting the overall test approach and its objective.

Here, creating a document is important as it serves as the guide for the complete test process. You may question why to make a test plan before proceeding with the test process. Well, the following is the main purpose of to test plan that makes it a crucial step in the test process:

  • To define test scope, risks, and test objectives.
  • To find resources required for testing, like a test environment.
  • To schedule tasks for test designing and evaluation.

The crucial activities in the test planning are as mentioned below:

  • Determining the test scope and risk: The scope of testing defines what aspects of the software or system will be tested. It helps identify the boundaries and areas to be covered. Risks associated with the project are also assessed to prioritize testing efforts and allocate resources accordingly.
  • Identifying test objectives: Test objectives define what we want to achieve through testing. They can include goals such as verifying specific functionalities, validating performance requirements, or ensuring compatibility with different platforms.
  • Identifying the test basis: Here, you can understand the test basis as all the included information and documents that form the test process's main base or foundation. This includes requirements, design specifications, and risk analysis related to software application development. Knowing and documenting the above will help understand the software application’s expected behavior and testing needs.
  • Test condition and test cases: You can identify the test condition by considering the test basis and its evaluation. The specified test condition shows diverse test scenarios and circumstances for testing a software application.

    Following this, test cases are created in such a way that includes all test conditions. Such test cases specify each test scenario's inputs, actions, and expected outcomes.

  • Preparing the test environment: In the test plan, designing the test environment is crucial as it specifies the need for the hardware, software, and network configuration during test execution and ensures its availability. This process helps ensure the team has all the required test infrastructure and tools for initiating the test process.
  • Specifying completion criteria: Completion criteria define the conditions that indicate when testing, at any stage, is considered complete. These criteria may include factors such as the number of test cases executed, the pass percentage, or specific goals achieved. Specifying completion criteria helps track progress and determine when testing can be concluded.


Control is an essential aspect of the test process and involves monitoring and reporting the progress of testing activities. The main tasks involved in control are:

  • Progress Monitoring: Progress is monitored by comparing the actual testing activities and results against the planned objectives and schedule. It helps identify deviations or delays and enables corrective actions to be taken.
  • Status Reporting: Regular status reports are generated to inform stakeholders about the current testing state. The reports include details about the progress, any issues or risks encountered, and the overall quality of the software or system under test.
  • Deviation Management: If deviations from the planned objectives or schedule are identified, appropriate actions are taken to bring the testing back on track. It may involve reallocating resources, adjusting timelines, or reassessing priorities.
  • Risk Management: Risks identified during the planning phase are continually monitored, and mitigation strategies are implemented to address them effectively. Risk management helps minimize potential negative impacts on the testing process and the overall project.
  • Stakeholder Communication: Communication with stakeholders, including project managers, developers, and other team members, is crucial for effective control. Regular meetings and discussions ensure everyone is informed about the testing progress and any challenges faced.

Analysis and Design

In this phase of the testing process, the information that forms the main foundation of the test is reviewed. Such information includes design specifications, system architecture, and software requirements. When the review is completed, the test condition is further identified, which requires it to be tested.

Here is a detailed explanation of the key task involved in this phase:

  • As in the test plan, we identify the test basis; further review is done in this phase. It involves studying the project requirements, understanding the design specifications, analyzing the identified risks, and gaining insights into the overall system architecture.
  • Based on the review of the test basis, the identified test conditions are then analyzed and reviewed. It shows different situations, functionalities, or behaviors that the software or system should exhibit.
  • After analyzing the test conditions, it is important to design the actual test. This task involves creating detailed test cases that specify each test scenario's inputs, actions, and expected outcomes.
  • Another crucial task of this phase is to determine the test environment setup. It involves analysis of the required hardware, software, and network configurations to create an environment that closely resembles the actual production environment.

Thoroughly analyzing the test basis and designing effective tests lay the foundation for comprehensive testing. This phase identifies the key areas to focus on, ensuring a well-defined testing approach. Further, determining the necessary test environment setup and infrastructure allows you to create an environment that mirrors real-world conditions, enabling accurate testing and reliable results.

Implementation and Execution

In this phase, the actual test of the software application occurs. It involves test implementation and test execution. In test implementation, the development and prioritizing of test cases are done along with creating test data for such tests. In addition, test suites are used for the execution of the test process.

In test execution, the specified test is run on the computer system either through a manual or automation approach. You can log the outcomes of the tests, comparing actual results with expected results.

Here is a detailed explanation of the key activities involved in this phase:

  • Test Case Implementation

    The designed test case is developed in the previous phase of the testing process. It means that required code and scripts are written to execute the test cases to test software applications. However, there might be many test cases that define each functionality of the software application. It is very time-consuming to execute each of those. Hence, test cases should be prioritized based on risk, end-user requirements, and criticality.

  • Test Data Preparation

    Preparation of test data is essential to test software applications. The test data are created or gathered to mimic the real device scenario. Thus, it must include possible scenarios and edge cases to ensure detailed testing.

  • Test Suite Creation

    A test suite is a collection or grouping of related test cases. It helps organize and streamline the execution of tests. Test suites are created during this phase based on the implemented test cases. Grouping test cases into suites allows for efficient execution, as it is possible to execute multiple test cases simultaneously, saving a lot of time and effort. Test suites can be organized based on specific modules, functionalities, or test objectives.

  • Test Execution

    Tests are executed once the test cases are implemented, and the test data is prepared. Test execution involves running the specified test cases on the target system or software. It can be done manually by following predefined steps or automated using specialized test execution tools. During test execution, you can observe and record the actual outcomes or results of the tests.

  • Outcome Comparison

    After executing each test case, you can compare the actual results obtained during the test execution with the expected results specified in the test cases. This comparison helps identify any discrepancies or deviations from the expected behavior. You can log the outcomes of each test, noting whether the test passed or failed based on the comparison. This information is valuable for further analysis and troubleshooting.

Evaluating Test Exit Criteria and Reporting

The evaluating exit criteria and reporting phase in the testing process are crucial for determining when to conclude the testing activities and communicating the results to stakeholders. This phase consists of two key components: evaluating exit criteria and generating test reports.

  • Evaluating Exit Criteria

    Exit criteria are predefined conditions or benchmarks indicating when testing can be completed. These criteria are established based on various factors, including code coverage, functionality coverage, risk assessment, business priorities, and project constraints such as cost and time.

    When these criteria are met, the testing objectives have been achieved, and further testing may not be necessary. During the evaluating exit criteria stage, the following tasks are typically performed.

  • Assessing the Completion of Testing

    The testing team evaluates whether the predetermined exit criteria have been satisfied. This assessment involves reviewing the test results, analyzing the coverage achieved, and considering the identified risks. For example, if a certain level of code coverage or a specific number of critical functionalities have been tested successfully, it may indicate that the exit criteria have been met.

  • Modifying or Refining Exit Criteria

    In some cases, it may be necessary to reassess or modify the exit criteria based on the testing outcomes or changing project requirements. If the original exit criteria are deemed inadequate or impractical, adjustments can be made to ensure they align with the current project context. It helps ensure that the exit criteria remain relevant and meaningful.

    Exit criteria can be considered in the following cases:

    • When maximum test cases are executed with a pass percentage.
    • When the bug rate falls below a certain level.
    • When the deadline of the software project is reached.

  • Reporting

    During this stage, you can assess if more tests are needed or if changes should be made to the exit criteria. It includes writing a test summary report for stakeholders and providing an overview of the testing process and outcomes. During this stage, the following activities are typically undertaken:

    • Test summary report: You have to prepare the test report that gives an overview of the test activities and results by summarizing the test objective, scope of the test, test coverage, and quality of the software applications. This gives details of the identified bugs or errors during the test and their effect on the software project.
    • Test completion recommendation: Based on the evaluation of exit criteria and the overall testing outcomes, the testing team may provide recommendations on whether testing should be concluded or if additional testing is required. These recommendations can guide project managers and decision-makers in determining the next steps for the software or system being tested.

    The evaluating exit criteria and reporting phase helps ensure that testing activities are well-managed and decisions regarding test completion are based on predefined criteria and project considerations.

    The test reports facilitate effective communication with stakeholders, providing them with the necessary information to assess the quality of the software or system and make informed decisions regarding its release or further testing.

Test Closure Activities

These activities are performed when the software applications are ready to be released or when testing needs to be closed for other reasons, like project cancellation or achievement of targets. During this phase, completed planned deliverables and resolved incident reports are checked.

Following this, finalize and archive the test artifacts, such as test scripts and environments, for future reuse is done. You must also evaluate the testing process and identify lessons learned for future projects.

The test closure activities phase marks the conclusion of the testing process and involves several important tasks. Let's explore each of these activities in detail:

  • Checking Planned Deliverables and Incident Reports

    During this phase, the testing team verifies whether all planned deliverables have been completed per the initial test plan. It includes ensuring that all test cases have been executed, test environments have been set up and utilized, and any other testing-related tasks or milestones have been achieved.

    Additionally, any open incident reports or defects identified during testing are reviewed to ensure they have been resolved or appropriately addressed.

  • Finalizing and Archiving Test Artifacts

    In the test closure activities phase, it is important to consolidate and preserve the test artifacts generated during the testing process. It includes finalizing and archiving test scripts, test plans, test data sets, and any other relevant documentation or tools used during testing.

    Organizing and storing these artifacts can be readily accessible for future reference, reusability, or audits. It ensures that valuable knowledge and resources from the testing phase are retained for future projects.

  • Evaluation of the Testing Process

    In the test closure activity phase, evaluation and reflection on the entire test process are key aspects. Here, the team performs a detailed analysis of the complete efforts and verifies factors like the effectiveness of test strategies, the efficiency of test execution, and the quality of the software application under test. It will help you identify the strengths and weaknesses of the test process and give insight to process improvement in future software projects.

  • Lessons Learned

    One of the important aspects of the test closure activities phase is capturing lessons learned from the testing experience. It involves gathering feedback from the testing team, stakeholders, and project members to identify areas of improvement, best practices, and potential pitfalls encountered during testing. Lessons learned can be documented in a formal report or knowledge base, ensuring valuable insights gained from the testing process are utilized to enhance future testing endeavors.

    Following these phases ensures a well-planned and controlled testing process, with thorough analysis, design, implementation, execution, and evaluation, leading to effective and reliable software application delivery.

Approach of the Test Process

Now that you have known about the phases involved in the test process to check the quality and functionality of the software application, you should know the different approaches through which these phases can be executed.

The two main approaches to performing the test process involve manual and automation methods. Read the below explanation to get detailed information:

Manual Approach

In the manual testing approach, the test process is executed manually without using any tools. In executing the test process, the QA team follows pre-defined steps to verify the software application and its functionality, identify any errors and ensure its fixes. This approach involves a thorough exploration of the software applications and is often used during the early stage of software testing.

Manual testing is useful when:

  • The test scenario is complex and requires human intuition and creativity.
  • The application has a user interface that needs to be tested for usability and user experience.
  • Exploratory testing is required to uncover an unforeseen defect.

Automation Approach

In the automation testing approach, the test process is executed using automation testing tools. Here, the QA teams create scripts that mimic the user actions and interaction with the software applications. This approach allows us to test complex test scenarios and repetitive tasks in a better way. It saves time in testing and ensures reliability in the testing process.

Automation testing is beneficial when:

  • There are repetitive test cases that need to be executed frequently.
  • Performance or load testing is required.
  • Regression testing is necessary to ensure that changes in the application do not introduce new defects.

Techniques of the Test Process

The technique of the testing process encompasses diverse methodologies employed for the creation and execution of tests. Let us explore three prevalent techniques: white, black, and grey box testing.

White Box Testing

White box testing, also known as clear box testing or structural testing, focuses on understanding and testing the software's internal structure and implementation details.

Here the QA team has access to the internal code, data structures, and logic of the software under test.

This grants them the ability to design test cases based on the internal framework, ensuring thorough scrutiny of all code paths, branches, and conditions. White box testing is commonly conducted by developers or testers with programming expertise. Its purpose is to find defects related to coding errors, control flow anomalies, and data flow complications.

Black Box Testing

Black box testing adopts an approach where testers solely concentrate on the externally observable behavior of the software. They do not possess access to the internal code or implementation specifics. Test cases are formulated based on the software's requirements and specifications.

The primary objective is to validate that the software functions correctly and aligns with the expected behavior without considering its internal mechanics. Testers focus on inputs, outputs, and interactions with the software to identify defects such as incorrect outputs, missing features, or usability issues. Independent testers or QA teams typically perform black box testing and do not require programming knowledge.

Grey Box Testing

Grey box testing is a hybrid approach combining white box and black box testing elements. Testers have limited knowledge of the internal workings of the software, such as high-level design or database structure. They use this partial knowledge to design test cases that target specific areas or functionalities of the software.

Grey box testing allows testers to take advantage of the benefits of both techniques. It helps uncover defects related to specific components or integration issues while still considering the overall behavior and requirements of the software.


Tools for Test Process

The test process can be executed efficiently using various automation testing frameworks or tools. Some of the most used tools are explained below:


LambdaTest is a cloud-based digital experience testing platform enabling testers to test on 3000+ browser and operating system combinations. It provides real-time access to real operating systems, real devices, emulators, and simulators for testing purposes. LambdaTest’s cloud infrastructure allows testers to run test scripts across multiple browsers simultaneously, reducing overall test execution time and ensuring comprehensive compatibility testing.

The real device cloud provided by LambdaTest enables testers to perform comprehensive testing on different browsers, operating systems, and device combinations. It ensures the software or application functions seamlessly across various environments. By leveraging the real device cloud, testers can simulate real-world scenarios and validate the compatibility and performance of the software on different devices and platforms.

By incorporating LambdaTest into the test process, testers can streamline their automation testing efforts, ensure comprehensive test coverage, and deliver high-quality software. The real device cloud offered by LambdaTest empowers testers to perform testing on a diverse range of devices, while the parallel execution capability saves time and enhances productivity.

Hence, LambdaTest serves as a valuable tool for automation testing, enabling testers to achieve optimal results and deliver software that meets end-user's expectations.

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Selenium is a widely-used open-source framework that automates web browsers. It allows testers to write test scripts in programming languages like Java, Python, or C# to simulate user actions on web applications. By interacting with web elements and validating expected behaviors, Selenium enhances the efficiency of the testing process.


Cypress is an automation testing tool specifically designed for performing end-to-end testing of web applications. It offers various features that help optimize the testing process, such as real-time reloading, automatic waiting, and time travel debugging. You can easily execute the test process using Cypress, and it leverages its capability to ensure complete software testing.


Playwright is a newer tool that supports automation testing across multiple browsers, including Chrome, Firefox, and Safari. It simplifies test script creation with its concise API, available in JavaScript, Python, and .NET languages. Playwright offers useful features such as automatic waiting for page loads and network requests and the ability to intercept and modify network traffic. These features contribute to efficient and reliable test execution.


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Challenges in the Test Process

Challenges in the test process are inevitable and can arise due to various factors. Let's explore some of the common challenges faced during testing:

  • Time and Resource Constraints

    One of the significant challenges in the testing process is managing time and resources effectively. Test teams often have to work within tight schedules and limited resources, which can impact the thoroughness and coverage of testing. Time constraints may result in inadequate test planning, rushed execution, or reduced testing cycles.

  • Changing Requirements

    In dynamic project environments, requirements can change frequently. These changes can introduce challenges for the testing process. When requirements evolve, it becomes essential to ensure that test cases are updated accordingly and the impacted areas are retested.

  • Lack of Test Environment

    A suitable test environment closely resembling the production environment is crucial for effective testing. However, acquiring, configuring, and maintaining test environments can be challenging. Limited availability of hardware, software dependencies, network configurations, and data sets required for testing can pose obstacles.

  • Communication and Collaboration Issues

    Effective communication and collaboration among team members, stakeholders, and other project participants are vital for successful testing. However, challenges can arise due to geographical dispersion, language barriers, or differences in understanding. Miscommunication or lack of clarity can lead to misunderstandings, inaccurate test execution, and delays in issue resolution.

  • Test Data Management

    Test data is crucial in testing various scenarios and ensuring comprehensive coverage. However, managing test data can be complex, especially when dealing with large datasets, sensitive information, or complex data dependencies. Challenges in test data management include generating realistic and diverse test data, ensuring data privacy and security, and synchronizing test data across different test environments.

Best Practices of Test Process

Best practices in the testing process can greatly contribute to the effectiveness and efficiency of testing efforts. Here are brief explanations of each point:

  • Define Clear Objectives and Goals

    Clearly defining the objectives and goals of the testing process is essential. It includes understanding the purpose of testing, identifying what needs to be tested, and defining measurable criteria for success. Having clear objectives helps guide the testing activities and ensures that the focus remains on delivering high-quality software applications.

  • Involve Stakeholders Early in the Process

    Early involvement of stakeholders, such as business analysts, developers, and end-users, is crucial for understanding requirements, gathering feedback, and aligning expectations. Engaging stakeholders from the beginning ensures that the testing process meets their needs and avoids misunderstandings or delays later in the software project.

  • Implement Test Automation

    Test automation can significantly enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of testing. Automating repetitive and time-consuming tasks, such as regression testing, enables faster feedback and reduces human errors. It is important to identify suitable test cases for automation, invest in appropriate automation tools, and establish a robust automation framework.

  • Use Appropriate Test Techniques and Methods

    Applying appropriate test techniques and methods based on the software or system's characteristics can improve test coverage and effectiveness. Techniques such as boundary value analysis, equivalence partitioning, and risk based testing help identify critical areas and potential defects. Using a combination of techniques ensures comprehensive testing.

  • Prioritize and Optimize Testing Efforts

    Testing efforts should be prioritized based on factors such as risk, critical functionality, and business impact. It helps allocate resources effectively and ensures that the most critical aspects of the software are thoroughly tested. Optimization involves identifying redundant or unnecessary tests, reducing duplication, and streamlining test execution.

  • Establish Effective Communication Channels

    Effective communication is vital for successful testing. Establishing clear and open communication channels among team members, stakeholders, and other project participants fosters collaboration, enables prompt issue resolution, and ensures everyone is aligned with the testing objectives. Regular meetings, status reports, and documentation aid in maintaining effective communication.

  • Monitor and Track Test Progress

    Monitoring and tracking test progress allows for real-time visibility into the testing activities and helps identify potential bottlenecks or areas needing attention. QA metrics, such as test coverage, defect density, and test execution progress, provide valuable insights into the quality and progress of the testing process.

  • Continuously improve the Test Process

    Continuous improvement is key to enhancing the testing process. Encouraging feedback from team members and stakeholders, conducting retrospectives, and actively seeking opportunities for improvement help refine testing practices and drive efficiency. Regularly evaluating and adopting new tools, techniques, and industry best practices contributes to ongoing process enhancement.


In summary, the test process is an essential part of software development that ensures the quality and reliability of the final product. It involves a combination of manual and automation testing methods to assess the software or application thoroughly.

The testing process holds great significance as it helps identify and resolve bugs, errors, and issues before the software is released to users. By validating the expected behavior of the software, it instills confidence in its reliability and functionality.

The testing process encompasses various activities, including planning, creating test cases, executing tests, tracking defects, and generating reports. Each activity contributes to ensuring the desired level of quality in the software. However, challenges may arise during the test process, such as limited time and resources, evolving requirements, and the need for comprehensive test coverage. Testers need to address these challenges effectively.

Following best practices to overcome these challenges and achieve an efficient testing process is crucial. These include involving testers early in the development cycle, using automation tools like Selenium and Cypress to expedite testing tasks, maintaining open communication between testers and developers, and adapting the test strategy based on evolving project requirements.

By adhering to these best practices, testers can enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of the test process, ultimately leading to the delivery of high-quality software. The test process is an iterative and continuous effort, providing valuable insights into the strengths and weaknesses of the software and enabling teams to make informed decisions and improvements.

Hence, the testing process is a fundamental aspect of software development that ensures the creation of reliable and user-friendly applications. By embracing the test process, addressing challenges, and implementing best practices, organizations can strive to deliver software that meets end-users expectations in terms of quality and functionality.


Frequently asked questions

  • General ...
How important is the test planning phase in the test process?
The test planning phase holds immense importance in software testing, serving as a pivotal stage that establishes the parameters, objectives, and necessary resources for conducting effective tests. Its primary function lies in organizing and streamlining the testing process, ensuring its efficiency and alignment with the project's overarching goals.
What is the purpose of test case design in the testing process?
Test case design assumes a critical role in software testing by carefully crafting comprehensive steps and conditions that test the software's functionality. This methodical approach guarantees a thorough examination of all facets of the software, effectively identifying defects and potential issues before its final release.
How do you handle defects found during the test process?
When defects are uncovered during the testing process, they are duly documented within a defect tracking system. Subsequently, the development team thoroughly reviews and prioritizes these defects, undertaking corrective measures in subsequent iterations or releases. Effective communication and collaboration between testers and developers play a pivotal role in expeditiously resolving these defects.

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