How to Use Selenium With Java: A Complete Tutorial

Salman Khan

Posted On: January 3, 2024

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Read time38 Min Read

When you start with automation testing, you’ll likely wonder: which framework should I use, and which programming language is best?

For automation testing, testers turn to Selenium as their first option. Being open-source with large community support, Selenium has established itself as the favorite choice of automation testers over the last decade with significant traction. It has garnered more than 28.5k Stars and 8k Forks on GitHub.

When it comes to selecting the right programming language for writing tests, many factors have to be considered. This includes the language in which the Application Under Test (AUT) is being developed, community support, available test automation frameworks, IDE support, usability, simplicity, and the learning curve for the tester writing the test case. Test scenarios in Selenium can be implemented in popular programming languages like Java, Python, JavaScript, C#, PHP, and Ruby.

Selenium with Java is a powerful combination for automating web application testing, leveraging Java’s speed and widespread use in commercial applications. It involves setting up Selenium WebDriver with Eclipse, adding Selenium Jars, and writing test scripts to automate browser actions, making testing efficient and less prone to human error.

In this Selenium Java tutorial, let us explore the most popular combination in automation testing – Selenium with Java. By the end of this detailed guide on Selenium with Java, you can kick-start your journey in Selenium automation testing with Java. I have covered various topics like installation and project setup for writing your first test case. You will also learn some of the Selenium best practices for automation testing using Selenium with Java.

What is Selenium?

Selenium is an open-source framework that can be used to perform automated browser testing of websites and web applications. It is a versatile framework for testing across different environments due to its cross-browser, cross-language, and cross-platform capabilities. Selenium integrates with existing development workflows and supports programming languages like Java, JavaScript, Python, and more.

Moreover, Selenium offers cross-browser compatibility with major browsers like Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, and Opera. Furthermore, you can leverage the immense capability offered by Selenium flexibility to perform automation testing with testing frameworks like TestNG, JUnit, MSTest, pytest, and more.

Components of Selenium

Selenium framework consists of three primary components: Selenium WebDriver, Selenium Grid, and Selenium IDE.

Components of Selenium

  • Selenium WebDriver: It is an integral part of the Selenium suite used for automating web application testing. It offers developers and testers an interface to effortlessly create and execute test scripts that mimic user interactions with web browsers. These interactions include clicking on links, completing forms, and retrieving web page information. The versatility of Selenium WebDriver allows these actions to be performed on local machines and remote grids.
  • The latest version of Selenium 4 introduces a new architecture for Selenium WebDriver, which revolves around four essential components. These components play a crucial role in enhancing the functionality of Selenium.

    • Selenium Client Libraries
    • WebDriver W3C Protocol
    • Browser Drivers
    • Real Web Browsers
  • Selenium Grid: Selenium Grid allows multiple test scripts to be executed simultaneously across different browsers, operating systems, and machines. Its hub-and-node architecture serves as a central control point for the network of test machines (nodes).
  • This setup enables distributed testing, significantly reducing the time required for cross-browser and cross-platform testing. The Grid also facilitates parallel execution of tests, improving testing efficiency and coverage. It proves particularly beneficial in large-scale test environments and continuous integration pipelines.

    The latest version of Selenium, Selenium 4, was released in October 2021 and introduces significant updates compared to its predecessor, Selenium 3. One key feature in Selenium 4 is the adoption of the W3C WebDriver Protocol, which replaces the JSON Wire Protocol used in Selenium 3. This update brings enhanced capabilities to the framework.

  • Selenium IDE: Selenium IDE is an extension for Chrome, Firefox, and Edge that simplifies the process of recording and executing tests directly within the browser. Its user-friendly interface and built-in functionality allow testers to quickly create reliable tests without any additional setup requirements.
  • Moreover, Selenium IDE offers advanced debugging capabilities like breakpoints and exception pausing, which enhance troubleshooting efficiency. Another benefit of using Selenium IDE is its automated cross browser testing support. This means you can run your tests on various browsers and operating systems using the Command-line Runner.

Why Use Selenium With Java for Automation?

Being part of a solid dеvеlopеr community is kеy in making Java thе top choicе for many web dеvеlopеrs. According to the Stack Overflow Developer Survey 2023, almost 30.55% of developers prefer Java as their programming language for development.

Why Use Selenium

When it comes to writing Sеlеnium tеst casеs, using Java offers sеvеral advantages:

  • Sеlеnium supports Java, which means tеstеrs can tap into a vibrant community of dеvеlopеrs and takе advantage of еxtеnsivе documеntation to crеatе еffеctivе tеst casеs.
  • Websites coded in Java tend to run fastеr (due to its high-performing standard library) compared to popular altеrnativеs like Python. This can contribute to quickеr and morе еfficiеnt tеst еxеcution.
  • Java holds a significant prеsеncе in commеrcial websites and web applications, making thе intеgration of Sеlеnium tеsts smoothеr.
  • Java is accessible across various operating systems like UNIX, Linux, Windows, macOS, etc.

Getting Started: Automation Testing Using Selenium With Java

If you’re new to automation or moved from manual to automation testing, Selenium WebDriver is the best place to start. It has everything that you need to kickstart your Selenium automation journey.

In this section of this article on Selenium with Java, I will take you through the prerequisites and everything you need to know about Selenium to get started with automation testing with Java.

The latest version, Selenium 4, comes with numerous major revamps, including enhanced architecture and advanced features. You can go through this Selenium 4 tutorial to learn what is new in Selenium 4.

How Does Selenium WebDriver Work?

The Selenium WebDriver works with a client-server architecture model.

We have the Selenium client library on the client side, which supports multiple client libraries corresponding to the programming language being used, like Java, Python, Ruby, etc. The language binding feature of Selenium allows it to support various programming languages. Based on the programming language of the test scripts, we need to choose the client library. For example, you need to use the Java language bindings to use Selenium with Java. You can download your respective language bindings from the Selenium Downloads Page.

We have the browser driver on the server side, which accepts the HTTP requests coming from the client side via the communication protocol. The browser driver then interacts with the real browser and drives it to execute the actions defined in the automation scripts. Every browser has a browser driver specific to it. For example, you need to use the Chrome driver to automate the Chrome browser. Below are the locations where you can download the respective browser driver.

Microsoft Edge
Internet Explorer

The client-side and server-side interact with each other via a communication protocol.

For versions earlier than Selenium 4, the JSON Wire Protocol was used to communicate between the client and the server. It consists of the REST API that sends requests from the client to the server (browser’s native API) via HTTP.


From Selenium 4, the JSON Wire Protocol replaces the WebDriver W3C Protocol, enabling direct communication between the Selenium client libraries and the target browser. As the WebDriver and web browser use the same protocol, so encoding, and decoding API requests are no longer required, making the test cases more stable.

Selenium with Java

Installation and Setup: How to use Selenium with Java?

To start your automation testing journey using Selenium with Java, the first step is to install and configure Selenium onto your local system. In this section of this article on Selenium with Java, I will guide you through the installation process step by step. You will also learn how to create a basic Selenium with Java project setup.


The installation process consists of the following steps.

  1. Install JDK.
  2. Install Eclipse IDE.
  3. Install Selenium WebDriver and Language Bindings.
  4. Install Browser Drivers (Optional).

Install JDK

Let us start with the Java Development Kit (JDK) installation. The JDK includes JRE (Java Runtime Environment), used to write and run Java code. You can download JDK from any of the below options.

Once the installation is complete, set the environment variables. The steps are as follows:

  1. Search for environment variables, then click on the search result that says Edit the system environment variables.
  2. Click on Environment Variables.
  3. Click New under System variables.
  4. In the Variable name field, enter either
    • JAVA_HOME, if you have installed the Java Development Kit (JDK).
    • JRE_HOME, if you have installed the Java Runtime Environment (JRE).
  5. In the Variable value field, provide your JDK or JRE installation path.
  6. installation

  7. Click OK and then Apply Changes.

The environment variable setup is now complete. Open the command prompt and run the command java -version to verify that Java has been successfully installed in your system.


Install Eclipse IDE

Next, we need to install an IDE (Integrated Development Environment). An IDE is a platform where developers can write and run the code. I will be using the Eclipse IDE for Java Developers for this demo. You can download the latest version from the Eclipse Downloads Page.

Once the installer file is downloaded, complete the installation process. Alternatively, you can also use any other popular IDE like Jetbrains Webstorm, IntelliJ IDEA, etc.

Install Selenium WebDriver and Language Bindings

Download the Selenium Client Library for Java from the Selenium Downloads Page. The download comes as a ZIP file. Extract the contents (JAR files) and store them in a directory.


We are downloading client drivers for Selenium 4. Please check out Previous Releases for working with Selenium 3 or older versions.


Install Browser Drivers (Optional)

Finally, if you are running your test scripts on your local system, it is mandatory to have its respective browser driver for automating a browser. You can download the drivers for the browsers of your choice from the Selenium Ecosystem Page.

However, you can skip this step using a cloud Selenium Grid.

nium Grid

With the installation process complete, let us move on to the project setup.

How to Create a Selenium With Java Project in Eclipse?

We need to have a project set up for writing and storing our test cases. You can follow the below-mentioned steps to create a new Selenium with Java project in Eclipse.

  1. Launch Eclipse
  2. Create a workspace.
  3. A workspace will be a place where you will be storing all your projects. You can create as many workspaces as required.


  4. Create a new Selenium with Java project. Go to File > New > Java Project. Name the project.
  5. project

  6. A new pop-up window will appear. Enter the following details: project name, location to save the project, and execution JRE. Once done, click Finish.
  7. Once

    The project is now created.

  8. Add Selenium API JAR files to the Java project by following the below-mentioned steps:
    1. Right-click on the project and select Properties.
    2. Select Java Build Path.
    3. Under the Libraries section, click on Add External JARs, which gets enabled upon opting for Classpath.
    4. Classpath

    5. Add the Selenium Java Client JARS. Navigate to the folder where you downloaded and extracted the JAR files.
    6. JAR files.

    7. Once all the JAR files are added, click Apply and Close.
    8. added

With our project configured by Selenium with Java, we are ready to write and run our first test script in Selenium.

To perform automated testing using Selenium with Java, you can also leverage Maven. Maven is one of the popular Java build tools that relies on POM.xml. If you are new to Maven, check out this Selenium Maven tutorial, which guides you through writing and running Selenium projects with Maven.

Demo: Running Test Using Selenium With Java on Local

It is time to hit practicals! In this section of this article on Selenium with Java, you will learn to write your first test case using Selenium with Java on the local grid like LambdaTest.

Test Scenario

  1. Launch the Chrome browser.
  2. Open LambdaTest Sign up page.
  3. Click on the Sign In link.
  4. Close the web browser.



To import the required dependencies, you can use the below pom.xml file.

Test Execution

To run the above test case using Selenium with Java on a local grid, you can use the below testng.xml file:

Code Walkthrough

Here is the code walkthrough of the executed test on a local grid using Selenium with Java.


@BeforeTest annotation is a TestNG Annotation that helps execute a block of statements every time before any Test Method executes. So, we can use this annotation to maintain a preset for every test method, like launching browser, URL, and login, based on your requirements.

WebDriverManager in Selenium is an open-source Java library. It helps carry out the driver exe path setup for all browsers like Chrome, Edge, and Firefox in a single line. Here WebDriverManager.ChromeDriver.setup initializes the latest Chrome browser installed in the system. However, even initializing the version of the browser is also possible.

browser is also possible

@Test is one of the more important TestNG Annotations, which defines a standard Java method as a test method. The try and catch block helps to capture any runtime exception and helps to handle the way developers want to end that execution.

The driver.get help to launch the required URL. Here, the required element, the Sign In link, is identified using XPath, a tag titled Sign In.

Each WebElement can be interacted with based on the element type, here as this element is a link, triggering a click event.

System.out.println in Java helps print messages on the console.


@AfterTest is another TestNG Annotation that executes the statements after every Test Annotation method executes. We can write statements that help tear down the process, like closing files and browsers.

The driver.close() method closes the current active browser launched by WebDriver. If multiple browsers exist, use driver.quit() to close all the sessions.

To achieve comprehensive browser coverage for Selenium Java testing, you may come across various challenges. These challenges often revolve around scalability issues and infrastructure limitations, including the availability of secure, enterprise-grade testing labs that meet all requirements and the recurring investment required to maintain and upgrade testing infrastructure.

A widely supported automation testing strategy to overcome these challenges is moving testing to the cloud. Through cloud testing, developers and testers can perform web testing across different browsers and hosted in the cloud infrastructure. By adopting a cloud-based testing approach, the need to maintain internal infrastructure is eliminated.

In addition, scalability issues associated with an on-premises test infrastructure that spans the spectrum of browsers, their different versions, and operating systems are effectively addressed. This approach is not only more efficient, but also proves to be cost-effective.

AI-powered test orchestration and execution platforms like LambdaTest provide an online Selenium Grid to perform Java automation testing on over 3000 real browsers and operating systems. The platform offers parallel testing in Selenium that improves the scalability of automated tests and reduces test execution time with simple setup and minimal configurations.

Demo: Running Test Using Selenium With Java on Cloud

In this section on the blog on Selenium with Java, we will run tests on the cloud using the TestNG framework. For this, we will use the LambdaTest Sign up page for demonstration purposes.

Test Scenario

  1. Launch Chrome browser.
  2. Open LambdaTest Sign up page.
  3. Click the Sign In link.
  4. Close the web browser.


  1. Create an account on LambdaTest.
  2. Configure your LambdaTest credentials as environment variables. To get your Username and Access Key, go to your Profile avatar from the LambdaTest dashboard and select Account Settings, then go to Password & Security.
  3. Create an account

  4. Pass the browser capabilities. You can generate your custom desired capabilities for Selenium with Java using LambdaTest Capabilities Generator.
  5. capabilities


Code Walkthrough

Shown below is the code walkthrough of the executed test on a cloud grid using Selenium with Java.

The RemoteWebDriver class is used to execute test scripts through the RemoteWebDriver server on a remote machine.


To run the tests on the LambdaTest cloud Selenium Grid, you need to populate the corresponding username and access key values.

key values

To set the necessary capabilities of browser name, version, platform, etc., you can use the LambdaTest Desired Capabilities Generator.

The remaining implementation will remain unchanged, as the only implementation that has changed is migrating from a local Selenium Grid to a cloud Selenium Grid.


Test Execution

Log on to LambdaTest Web Automation Dashboard to check the status of the test execution on LambdaTest.

If you are working on an actual project using Selenium with Java, you will need to write, run, and maintain hundreds of test cases. Each testing cycle will demand you to execute your test cases on multiple platforms and devices to ensure that the web application behaves as expected under various conditions and to ensure product quality before going live. It becomes highly desirable to reduce the overall test execution time, and one way to achieve it is through parallel testing.

In the next section of this tutorial on Selenium with Java, we will look at how to run parallel tests using a cloud grid like LambdaTest.

Demo: Running Parallel Tests in Selenium With Java

Parallel testing is a test execution strategy where the tests are run in parallel to reduce overall test execution time. Parallel testing was introduced to replace the traditional approach of sequential testing. As the name suggests, tests are executed sequentially, which is more time-consuming.

name suggests

In the previous section, you learned how to write and run a test case sequentially using Selenium with Java. Now, I will walk you through how to run tests in parallel on a cloud-based Selenium Grid using the TestNG framework.

TestNG is a prominent open-source test automation framework for Java, where NG stands for ‘Next Generation.’ TestNG is widely adopted by Selenium users because of its features and feasibility. Running Selenium with Java tests alone comes with numerous limitations. However, TestNG introduces an entire set of new features, making it powerful and beneficial.

A few critical features of TestNG are listed below:

  • Easy report generation in desirable formats. Now, it is easier to analyze how many test cases passed and how many failed during each test run.
  • Supports parallel testing. Multiple test cases can be run simultaneously, reducing the overall test execution time.
  • Possible to group test cases in TestNG effortlessly.
  • TestNG annotations like @Test, @BeforeTest, @AfterTest, etc., are supported.
  • Easy to integrate with tools like Maven, Jenkins, etc.

Parallel Test Execution in Selenium With Java on Cloud

One of the key advantages of adopting the TestNG automation framework is that it supports parallel test execution. Automation testing tools like TestNG allow you to run tests in parallel or multithreaded mode by utilizing the multi-threading concept of Java.

Multi-threading is the process of executing multiple threads simultaneously without any dependence on each other. This means the threads are executed in isolation, so exceptions occurring on one thread won’t affect the others. Multi-threading helps efficiently utilize the CPU by greatly reducing idle time. In TestNG, we enable parallel testing by making the required changes in the configuration file – TestNG XML file.

TestNG XML is the test suite configuration file in TestNG, which helps customize the execution of tests. It also allows you to run a single test file over numerous parameter combinations and specified values. A simple TestNG XML file looks like this.

To perform parallel testing using Selenium with Java, we will leverage the online Selenium Grid and run it parallelly across three different browsers.

For this demo on executing parallel tests using Selenium with Java, we will clone the LambdaTest Java TestNG GitHub repository and execute our test case parallelly on different browsers (Chrome, Safari, and Firefox) using the online Selenium Grid provided by LambdaTest.

Test Scenario

  1. Go to the LambdaTest ToDo app.
  2. Mark the first two items as done.
  3. Add a new item to the list.
  4. Display the count of pending items.


Here is the TestNG script we will use to run parallel tests using Selenium with Java.


Code Walkthrough

Here is the code walkthrough of the parallel tests executed using Selenium with Java.

These are the necessary imports for Selenium WebDriver, TestNG, and other related classes.


The code line below declares a class named TestNGTodo.


These are member variables used in the class, including credentials, Selenium WebDriver instance, grid URL, and a status flag.

credentials, Selenium WebDriver

This method is annotated with @BeforeClass, meaning it will run before any test method in the class. It sets up a ChromeOptions instance and configures it with the desired capabilities.

Then, it creates a RemoteWebDriver instance by connecting to the LambdaTest grid using the provided username, access key, and grid URL.

LambdaTest grid

This method is annotated with @Test, indicating it is a test case.

  1. It navigates to a LambdaTest ToDo app.
  2. Mark the first two items as done.
  3. Add a new item to the list.
  4. Display the count of pending items.


This method is annotated with @AfterClass, indicating it will run after all test methods in the class. If the WebDriver instance is not null, it sets the lambda-status using JavaScript and quits the driver.


Here is a TestNG XML file that will be used to run the tests in parallel.

To trigger parallel execution, we need to set the parallel attribute. This attribute accepts four values:

  • classes– to run all test cases present inside classes in the XML in parallel mode.
  • methods – to run all methods with @Test annotation in parallel mode.
  • tests – to run all test cases present inside the tag in the XML in parallel mode.
  • instances – to run all test cases in the same instance in parallel mode.

We can also set the number of threads we wish to allocate during the execution using the thread-count attribute. The default value of thread count in TestNG is 5.

To run the tests for the cloned repository, run the following command.

Now, go to your LambdaTest Web Automation Dashboard to see your parallel test results.

Advanced Use Cases of Using Selenium With Java

In this section of the Selenium with Java tutorial, you will learn how to run advanced use cases using Selenium and Java. Let’s look at some of the popular advanced use cases of using Selenium with Java.

Automating Registration Page Using Selenium With Java

When performing automation testing using Selenium with Java, focusing on automating either the registration or login Page is crucial. The registration page is the gateway to your web application, making it a vital component to test. Let us take a scenario to understand the automation registration page using Selenium with Java.

Test Scenario:

We will use the LambdaTest website as an example of registration page automation.

  1. Open a web browser and navigate to
  2. Validate the sign up page accessibility by checking its title.
  3. Now click on the Terms of Service link and verify redirection to
  4. Again, go back to the sign up page, fill in the form with valid data, click Sign up, and verify redirection to the email verification page.
  5. Now, navigate to the Sign up page and pass invalid input data. To do so, use the following test cases below.
    • Test Case 1: Submit with empty fields and verify error messages.
    • Test Case 2: Submit with duplicate email, verify duplicate email error.
    • Test Case 3: Submit with invalid password, verify invalid password error.
  6. Close the browser session

Below is the code implementation to automate the registration page.


Check out the video below to learn automating the registration page with Selenium WebDriver.

Handling Login Popups Using Selenium With Java

When testing websites, you may have encountered authentication pop-ups that prompt you to enter usernames or passwords. These pop-ups act as a security mechanism, ensuring that only authorized users gain access to specific features on the website.

Test Scenario:
To access an authentication-protected webpage, follow the below steps.

  1. Launch a web browser and go to a webpage
  2. To get access, use the provided credentials (username: “admin,” password: “admin”) in the URL.
  3. Once you get access, verify the success message. To do so, follow the test cases below.
  4. Close the web browser once you complete the authentication test.

Below is the code implementation for the above test scenario.


To learn more about handling login popups with Selenium WebDriver, watch the complete video tutorial below.

Handling Captcha Using Selenium With Java

CAPTCHA lets you differentiate between real users and automated entities like bots. The primary purpose of CAPTCHA is to prevent the unauthorized use of automated programs or bots from accessing various computing services or collecting specific sensitive information.

Test Scenario:

  1. Launch a browser and navigate to the contact form page at
  2. Provide random but valid information in the contact form, like first name, last name, email, etc.
  3. Interact with the checkbox to activate the reCAPTCHA.
  4. Switch to the reCAPTCHA iframe to interact further.
  5. Click on the audio challenge option within the reCAPTCHA.
  6. Use the Microsoft Azure Speech SDK to capture and identify the audio challenge.
  7. Type the recognized words into the place where you’re asked to respond to the audio challenge.
  8. Double-check everything and click the button to confirm within reCAPTCHA.
  9. Go back to the main page.
  10. Send the contact form with all the information you filled in.
  11. Close the web browser when you’re done with the test that involves handling the security check.

Below is the code implementation for the above test scenario.


To learn more about how to handle Captcha with Selenium WebDriver, refer to the video below.

Uploading and Downloading Files Using Selenium With Java

When using Selenium, you might come across scenarios where you have to either download or upload files. Various websites, such as YouTube, online stores, and writing tools, include features that require dealing with files.

For instance, YouTube lets you upload videos, and on Amazon, you may need to download order invoices. As a Selenium tester, you may encounter situations where you need to check and validate these functionalities related to handling files.

In the scenario below, let us see how to upload and download a file using Selenium with Java.

Test Scenario for File Upload:

  1. Go to
  2. Click on the +Add files button.
  3. Then click Start Upload.
  4. Assert it back.


Test Scenario for File Download:

  1. Launch the Chrome browser.
  2. Then, go to the ChromeDriver download page.
  3. Click on the “” link to start the download.
  4. Wait for 10 seconds to allow the download to complete.

Below is the code implementation for the test scenario to download files.


To learn more about uploading and downloading files with Selenium, check out the video tutorial below.

Handling Cookies Using Selenium With Java

When we shop or pay bills online, websites often use cookies—these small pieces of data sent to your computer by the website. When you visit a site, it sends these cookies to your computer. When you come back from the website, these cookies help the website remember what you did before, kind of like a virtual way for the website to recognize you without getting into your personal stuff.

Let us understand how to handle cookies by a scenario.

Test Scenario:

  1. Start the WebDriver session for Chrome or Firefox.
  2. Go to
  3. Maximize the browser window, then set a page load timeout of 10 seconds.
  4. Now print all the cookies present on the web page.
  5. Add a cookie with the name myCookie with the value 12345678999.
  6. Print all cookies and verify the myCookie is added successfully.
  7. Add a cookie named myCookie1 with the value abcdefj.
  8. Delete the myCookie1 cookie.
  9. Print the remaining cookies to confirm the deletion.
  10. Delete all cookies.
  11. Print the size of the cookies list to confirm all cookies are deleted.
  12. Close the WebDriver session after executing the tests.

When performing test automation using Selenium with Java, you can automate cookies using the Cookies interface provided by the WebDriver.Options class. Below is the code implementation on how to handle cookies.


Learn handling cookies with Selenium WebDriver by checking out the below video tutorial.

Best Practices for Selenium Java Testing

Through Selenium Java automation testing, we aim to reduce the labor of manual testing, speed up the execution, detect maximum bugs early, achieve better coverage, and accelerate time to market.

However, writing a stable and reliant test case can be challenging due to factors like test flakiness, incorrect testing approach, etc. This is where HyperExecute, an end-to-end test orchestration cloud by LambdaTest, comes into the picture, eliminating these factors and cutting down on test execution times. This allows businesses to test code and fix issues much quicker and achieve an accelerated market time.

In this section of this article on Selenium with Java, let us discuss some of the best practices recommended by the Selenium community.

  • Planning and Designing Test Cases Beforehand
  • Before getting started with writing any automation tests, it is recommended that the QA teams invest time in creating a proper test plan.

    However, to ensure foolproof testing of the application, QAs should come up with all possible logical scenarios and create maximum test cases based on the end-user perspective.

  • Implementing Page Object Model
  • When a UI change occurs, the Selenium locators may also change, and we are required to update the modified locators in all the test scripts consuming it. But, as the application complexity increases and UI changes become more frequent, creating and maintaining test cases becomes tiresome. The Page Object Model (POM) is a popular design pattern in Selenium Java automation testing, which helps enhance test maintenance and reduce code duplication.

    In the Page Object Model, all the web elements, actions, and validations happening on each web page are wrapped into a class file called Page Object. The POM allows a clean separation between test and page-specific codes such as locators and layouts.

    Due to the centralized nature of the page-specific code, they can be reused throughout the test cases, reducing code duplication. Also, in case of any UI changes, the fix needs to be done only on the related Page Objects, not on dependent test cases, making code maintenance easier.

  • Choosing the Best-Suited Locators
  • While writing automation test scripts, a lot of time is spent locating the web elements. Selenium offers us multiple strategies to locate a web element, such as ID, Name, Link Text, XPath, CSS Selector, DOM Locator, etc.

    However, some web locators are more brittle than others. As the UI implementation is prone to frequent changes, we must be cautious in choosing the right web locators, which will minimize the impact of UI code changes in the automation tests. If available, opt for unique locators like ID and Name, which are easy to find and more reliable as they are less prone to change.

  • Implement Logging and Reporting
  • As the test suite becomes extensive, locating the failed test case and debugging becomes challenging. In these cases, reporting and logging practices can act as huge saviors.

    The test report is a document that contains all the information about a particular test run, including the number of test cases passed, the number of test cases failed, the total time taken, errors with a snapshot, etc. Even though default Selenium does not come with reporting, you can implement it by leveraging test automation frameworks like TestNG.

  • Incorporating Wait Commands
  • The web browsers take some time to load the web page contents. The time taken for page load depends on many external factors like network speed, server issues, machine capabilities, etc. To tackle this, testers need to add some delay into the code so that the web element will be loaded and available before any action is performed.

    In Java, testers often achieve this delay using Thread.sleep(). However, this is not the recommended practice. As the name implies, when the Thread.sleep() method is called, the thread goes to sleep for the specified amount of time and does absolutely nothing to pause the automation script. After the time is over, it executes the next line of code.

    In real-time, we won’t be able to predict the exact time it would take for the page load as it depends on many external factors. Sometimes, the page may load quickly, lowering the test execution speed due to the remaining unnecessary delay caused by sleep().

    And sometimes, it may take longer than the specified time, causing the test to fail as the element was not fully loaded. As a better and more efficient alternative, use the implicit wait and explicit wait commands provided by Selenium instead of the sleep method.

    Watch this video to learn what are waits in Selenium and how to handle them using different methods like hard-coded pauses and combining explicit waits with different design patterns.

    Cloud-based testing platforms like LambdaTest also offer a SmartWait feature that lets you handle challenges associated with waits.

    LambdaTest SmartWait runs a series of “actionability checks” on webpage elements before executing any actions. These checks include verifying elements for visibility, presence, and interactability, ensuring they are ready for the intended action, such as clicking or typing.

    To get tutorials on automation testing, Selenium testing, and more, subscribe to the LambdaTest YouTube Channel.

  • Auto-Healing: Auto-healing, when used for Selenium Java testing, mitigates synchronization issues by automatically adapting to dynamic changes in web elements, such as loading times or AJAX requests. Auto-healing in Selenium dynamically adjusts wait times and ensures that test scripts execute seamlessly even when there are delays or changes in the web page.

    By intelligently handling timing-related challenges, auto-healing promotes stability in test automation, reducing the likelihood of flaky tests caused by synchronization issues. Selenium’s auto-healing capabilities enable scripts to adapt to varying conditions, maintaining synchronization between the test script and the application under test.


Selenium with Java is the most widely adopted test automation combination among QAs. In this tutorial, we explored how to start with Selenium Java automation testing and wrote our first test case.

On top of that, we also learned how to optimize test execution by leveraging parallel testing and other best practices to establish a reliable testing cycle. I hope this tutorial turns out to be beneficial. There’s much more to explore!

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Why is Selenium with Java best?

Since Java is the most commonly used language for writing Selenium, it makes it easy to perform unit testing in a basic environment. Moreover, Java has an extensive presence in commercial applications and, thus, lends itself to various testing scenarios. Selenium can be used to check the functional behavior and the handling of failures and errors.

Which is better for Selenium, Java, or Python?

Selenium with Python is a better choice than Java. For starters, it’s simpler. Python selenium does not require the JVM and can be executed as a script or embedded in other applications. With Python, you can also control browsers that use the Gecko engine (Firefox), Internet Explorer, and WebKit (Chrome).

Is Java knowledge required for Selenium?

You should have a good understanding of Java syntax and some basic knowledge of Selenium Framework and WebDriver API concepts.

Can you use Selenium with Java?

Yes, Selenium can be used with Java for web automation. Selenium provides a Java binding that allows developers to write test scripts in Java. This combination is widely adopted for its versatility and ease of use in creating robust and scalable automated tests. Java’s object-oriented features complement Selenium’s functionalities, making it a popular choice for web testing across various browsers. Many frameworks, such as TestNG and JUnit, integrate seamlessly with Selenium in Java, providing additional testing capabilities.

What is meant by Selenium with Java?

Selenium with Java refers to integrating the Selenium framework with the Java programming language. It allows developers to write automated test scripts in Java to interact with web applications. This combination leverages the features of both technologies, providing a powerful and versatile toolset for web testing. Selenium’s WebDriver library in Java enables the automation of browser interactions, while Java’s object-oriented capabilities contribute to creating maintainable and scalable test scripts.

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Salman Khan

Salman works as a Content Manager at LambdaTest. He is a Computer science engineer by degree and an experienced Tech writer who loves to share his thought about the latest tech trends.

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